Ubuntu desktop utilizes D-Bus as its inter-process communications (IPC) mediator. On Ubuntu, there are several message buses that run concurrently: A system bus, which is mainly used by privileged services to expose system-wide relevant services, and one session bus for each logged in user, which exposes services that are only relevant to that specific user. Since we will try to elevate our privileges, we will mainly focus on the system bus as the services there tend to run with higher privileges (i.e. root). Note that the D-Bus architecture utilizes one ‘router’ per session bus, which redirects client messages to the relevant services they are trying to interact with. Clients need to specify the address of the service to which they want to send messages.