# Basic Python

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## Misingi ya Python

### Taarifa muhimu

list(xrange()) == range() --> Katika python3, range ni kama xrange ya python2 (siyo orodha bali ni jenereta) Tofauti kati ya Tuple na Orodha ni kwamba nafasi ya thamani katika tuple inampa maana lakini orodha ni thamani zilizopangwa tu. Tuples zina muundo lakini orodha zina utaratibu.

### Operesheni kuu

Kuongeza namba unatumia: 3**2 (siyo 3^2) Ikiwa unafanya 2/3 inarudisha 1 kwa sababu unagawanya nambari mbili (integers). Ikiwa unataka namba za kdecimals unapaswa kugawa floats (2.0/3.0). i >= j i <= j i == j i != j a na b a au b siyo a float(a) int(a) str(d) ord("A") = 65 chr(65) = 'A' hex(100) = '0x64' hex(100)[2:] = '64' isinstance(1, int) = True "a b".split(" ") = ['a', 'b'] " ".join(['a', 'b']) = "a b" "abcdef".startswith("ab") = True "abcdef".contains("abc") = True "abc\n".strip() = "abc" "apbc".replace("p","") = "abc" dir(str) = Orodha ya njia zote zilizopo help(str) = Maelezo ya darasa la str "a".upper() = "A" "A".lower() = "a" "abc".capitalize() = "Abc" sum([1,2,3]) = 6 sorted([1,43,5,3,21,4])

Kuunganisha herufi 3 * ’a’ = ‘aaa’ ‘a’ + ‘b’ = ‘ab’ ‘a’ + str(3) = ‘a3’ [1,2,3]+[4,5]=[1,2,3,4,5]

Sehemu za orodha ‘abc’[0] = ‘a’ 'abc’[-1] = ‘c’ 'abc’[1:3] = ‘bc’ kutoka [1] hadi [2] "qwertyuiop"[:-1] = 'qwertyuio'

Maoni # Maoni ya mstari mmoja """ Maoni ya mistari kadhaa Mwingine """

Mizunguko

``````if a:
#somethig
elif b:
#something
else:
#something

while(a):
#comething

for i in range(0,100):
#something from 0 to 99

for letter in "hola":
#something with a letter in "hola"``````

### Tuples

t1 = (1,'2,'three') t2 = (5,6) t3 = t1 + t2 = (1, '2', 'three', 5, 6) (4,) = Singelton d = () empty tuple d += (4,) --> Adding into a tuple CANT! --> t1[1] == 'New value' list(t2) = [5,6] --> From tuple to list

### Orodha (array)

d = [] empty a = [1,2,3] b = [4,5] a + b = [1,2,3,4,5] b.append(6) = [4,5,6] tuple(a) = (1,2,3) --> From list to tuple

### Dictionary

d = {} empty monthNumbers={1:’Jan’, 2: ‘feb’,’feb’:2}—> monthNumbers ->{1:’Jan’, 2: ‘feb’,’feb’:2} monthNumbers[1] = ‘Jan’ monthNumbers[‘feb’] = 2 list(monthNumbers) = [1,2,’feb’] monthNumbers.values() = [‘Jan’,’feb’,2] keys = [k for k in monthNumbers] a={'9':9} monthNumbers.update(a) = {'9':9, 1:’Jan’, 2: ‘feb’,’feb’:2} mN = monthNumbers.copy() #Independent copy monthNumbers.get('key',0) #Check if key exists, Return value of monthNumbers["key"] or 0 if it does not exists

### Set

In sets there are no repetitions myset = set(['a', 'b']) = {'a', 'b'} myset.add('c') = {'a', 'b', 'c'} myset.add('a') = {'a', 'b', 'c'} #No repetitions myset.update([1,2,3]) = set(['a', 1, 2, 'b', 'c', 3]) myset.discard(10) #If present, remove it, if not, nothing myset.remove(10) #If present remove it, if not, rise exception myset2 = set([1, 2, 3, 4]) myset.union(myset2) #Values it myset OR myset2 myset.intersection(myset2) #Values in myset AND myset2 myset.difference(myset2) #Values in myset but not in myset2 myset.symmetric_difference(myset2) #Values that are not in myset AND myset2 (not in both) myset.pop() #Get the first element of the set and remove it myset.intersection_update(myset2) #myset = Elements in both myset and myset2 myset.difference_update(myset2) #myset = Elements in myset but not in myset2 myset.symmetric_difference_update(myset2) #myset = Elements that are not in both

### Classes

The method in __It__ will be the one used by sort to compare if an object of this class is bigger than other

``````class Person(name):
def __init__(self,name):
self.name= name
self.lastName = name.split(‘ ‘)[-1]
self.birthday = None
def __It__(self, other):
if self.lastName == other.lastName:
return self.name < other.name
return self.lastName < other.lastName #Return True if the lastname is smaller

def setBirthday(self, month, day. year):
self.birthday = date tame.date(year,month,day)
def getAge(self):
return (date time.date.today() - self.birthday).days

class MITPerson(Person):
nextIdNum = 0	# Attribute of the Class
def __init__(self, name):
Person.__init__(self,name)
self.idNum = MITPerson.nextIdNum  —> Accedemos al atributo de la clase
MITPerson.nextIdNum += 1 #Attribute of the class +1

def __it__(self, other):
return self.idNum < other.idNum``````

### map, zip, filter, lambda, sorted na mistari ya kifupi

Map ni kama: [f(x) kwa x katika iterable] --> map(tutple,[a,b]) = [(1,2,3),(4,5)] m = map(lambda x: x % 3 == 0, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]) --> [False, False, True, False, False, True, False, False, True]

zip inakoma wakati wa kumalizika kwa mafupi kati ya foo au bar:

``````for f, b in zip(foo, bar):
print(f, b)``````

Lambda hutumiwa kuamua kazi (lambda x,y: x+y)(5,3) = 8 --> Tumia lambda kama kazi rahisi sorted(range(-5,6), key=lambda x: x** 2) = [0, -1, 1, -2, 2, -3, 3, -4, 4, -5, 5] --> Tumia lambda kuorodhesha orodha m = filter(lambda x: x % 3 == 0, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]) = [3, 6, 9] --> Tumia lambda kuchuja reduce (lambda x,y: x*y, [1,2,3,4]) = 24

``````def make_adder(n):
return lambda x: x+n
plus3(4) = 7 # 3 + 4 = 7

class Car:
crash = lambda self: print('Boom!')
my_car = Car(); my_car.crash() = 'Boom!'``````

mult1 = [x kwa ajili ya x katika [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] kama x%3 == 0 ]

### Makosa ya Kutokea

``````def divide(x,y):
try:
result = x/y
except ZeroDivisionError, e:
print “division by zero!” + str(e)
except TypeError:
divide(int(x),int(y))
else:
print “result i”, result
finally
print “executing finally clause in any case”``````

### Assert()

Ikiwa hali ni ya uwongo, kamba itachapishwa kwenye skrini

``````def avg(grades, weights):

### Wazalishaji, toa

Mbadala ya kurudisha kitu, wazalishaji "hutoa" kitu. Unapofikia wazalishaji, itarudisha thamani ya kwanza iliyozalishwa, kisha unaweza kuifikia tena na itarudisha thamani inayofuata iliyozalishwa. Kwa hivyo, thamani zote hazizalishwi wakati mmoja na kwa kutumia hii badala ya orodha na thamani zote, unaweza kuokoa kumbukumbu nyingi.

``````def myGen(n):
yield n
yield n + 1``````

g = myGen(6) --> 6 next(g) --> 7 next(g) --> Error

### Mbinu za Kawaida

import re re.search("\w","hola").group() = "h" re.findall("\w","hola") = ['h', 'o', 'l', 'a'] re.findall("\w+(la)","hola caracola") = ['la', 'la']

Maana Maalum: . --> Kila kitu \w --> [a-zA-Z0-9_] \d --> Nambari \s --> Nafasi nyeupe [ \n\r\t\f] \S --> Herufi zisizo nafasi nyeupe ^ --> Anza na \$ --> Ishi na + --> Moja au zaidi * --> 0 au zaidi ? --> 0 au 1 mara

Chaguo: re.search(pat,str,re.IGNORECASE) IGNORECASE DOTALL --> Ruhusu alama ya kipindi kuendana na mstari mpya MULTILINE --> Ruhusu ^ na \$ kuendana katika mistari tofauti

re.findall("<.*>", "<b>foo</b>and<i>so on</i>") = ['<b>foo</b>and<i>so on</i>'] re.findall("<.*?>", "<b>foo</b>and<i>so on</i>") = ['<b>', '</b>', '<i>', '</i>']

IterTools product from itertools import product --> Inazalisha mchanganyiko kati ya orodha 1 au zaidi, labda kurudia thamani, mchanganyiko wa Cartesian (mali ya kugawa) print list(product([1,2,3],[3,4])) = [(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 3), (3, 4)] print list(product([1,2,3],repeat = 2)) = [(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3)]

permutations from itertools import permutations --> Inazalisha mchanganyiko wa wahusika wote katika kila nafasi print list(permutations(['1','2','3'])) = [('1', '2', '3'), ('1', '3', '2'), ('2', '1', '3'),... Kila mchanganyiko unaowezekana print(list(permutations('123',2))) = [('1', '2'), ('1', '3'), ('2', '1'), ('2', '3'), ('3', '1'), ('3', '2')] Kila mchanganyiko unaowezekana wa urefu wa 2

combinations from itertools import combinations --> Inazalisha mchanganyiko wote unaowezekana bila kurudia wahusika (ikiwa "ab" ipo, haizalishi "ba") print(list(combinations('123',2))) --> [('1', '2'), ('1', '3'), ('2', '3')]

combinations_with_replacement from itertools import combinations_with_replacement --> Inazalisha mchanganyiko wote unaowezekana kutoka kwa wahusika kuanzia hapo baadaye (kwa mfano, ya 3 imechanganywa kutoka ya 3 lakini sio na ya 2 au ya 1) print(list(combinations_with_replacement('1133',2))) = [('1', '1'), ('1', '1'), ('1', '3'), ('1', '3'), ('1', '1'), ('1', '3'), ('1', '3'), ('3', '3'), ('3', '3'), ('3', '3')]

### Wapambaaji

Wapambaaji ambao hupima wakati ambao kazi inahitaji kutekelezwa (kutoka hapa):

``````from functools import wraps
import time
def timeme(func):
@wraps(func)
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
print("Let's call our decorated function")
start = time.time()
result = func(*args, **kwargs)
print('Execution time: {} seconds'.format(time.time() - start))
return result
return wrapper

@timeme
def decorated_func():
print("Decorated func!")``````

Ikiendeshwa, utaona kitu kama hiki:

``````Let's call our decorated function
Decorated func!
Execution time: 4.792213439941406e-05 seconds``````
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