Network Services Pentesting
iOS Universal Links
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Universal links allows to redirect users directly to the app without passing through safari for redirection. Universal links are unique, so they can't be claimed by other apps because they use standard HTTP(S) links to the website where the owner has uploaded a file to make sure that the website and the app are related. As these links uses HTTP(S) schemes, when the app isn't installed, safari will open the link redirecting the users to the page. These allows apps to communicate with the app even if it isn't installed.
To create universal links it's needed to **create a JSON file called apple-app-site-association ** with the details. Then this file needs to be hosted in the root directory of your webserver (e.g. https://google.com/apple-app-site-association). For the pentester this file is very interesting as it discloses paths. It can even be disclosing paths of releases that haven't been published yet.

Checking the Associated Domains Entitlement

n Xcode, go to the Capabilities tab and search for Associated Domains. You can also inspect the .entitlements file looking for com.apple.developer.associated-domains. Each of the domains must be prefixed with applinks:, such as applinks:www.mywebsite.com.
Here's an example from Telegram's .entitlements file:
More detailed information can be found in the archived Apple Developer Documentation.
If you only has the compiled application you can extract the entitlements following this guide:

Retrieving the Apple App Site Association File

Try to retrieve the apple-app-site-association file from the server using the associated domains you got from the previous step. This file needs to be accessible via HTTPS, without any redirects, at https://<domain>/apple-app-site-association or https://<domain>/.well-known/apple-app-site-association.
You can retrieve it yourself with your browser or use the Apple App Site Association (AASA) Validator.
In order to receive links and handle them appropriately, the app delegate has to implement application:continueUserActivity:restorationHandler:. If you have the original project try searching for this method.
Please note that if the app uses openURL:options:completionHandler: to open a universal link to the app's website, the link won't open in the app. As the call originates from the app, it won't be handled as a universal link.
  • The scheme of the webpageURL must be HTTP or HTTPS (any other scheme should throw an exception). The scheme instance property of URLComponents / NSURLComponents can be used to verify this.

Checking the Data Handler Method

When iOS opens an app as the result of a universal link, the app receives an NSUserActivity object with an activityType value of NSUserActivityTypeBrowsingWeb. The activity object’s webpageURL property contains the HTTP or HTTPS URL that the user accesses. The following example in Swift verifies exactly this before opening the URL:
func application(_ application: UIApplication, continue userActivity: NSUserActivity,
restorationHandler: @escaping ([UIUserActivityRestoring]?) -> Void) -> Bool {
// ...
if userActivity.activityType == NSUserActivityTypeBrowsingWeb, let url = userActivity.webpageURL {
application.open(url, options: [:], completionHandler: nil)
return true
In addition, remember that if the URL includes parameters, they should not be trusted before being carefully sanitized and validated (even when coming from trusted domain). For example, they might have been spoofed by an attacker or might include malformed data. If that is the case, the whole URL and therefore the universal link request must be discarded.
The NSURLComponents API can be used to parse and manipulate the components of the URL. This can be also part of the method application:continueUserActivity:restorationHandler: itself or might occur on a separate method being called from it. The following example demonstrates this:
func application(_ application: UIApplication,
continue userActivity: NSUserActivity,
restorationHandler: @escaping ([Any]?) -> Void) -> Bool {
guard userActivity.activityType == NSUserActivityTypeBrowsingWeb,
let incomingURL = userActivity.webpageURL,
let components = NSURLComponents(url: incomingURL, resolvingAgainstBaseURL: true),
let path = components.path,
let params = components.queryItems else {
return false
if let albumName = params.first(where: { $0.name == "albumname" })?.value,
let photoIndex = params.first(where: { $0.name == "index" })?.value {
// Interact with album name and photo index
return true
} else {
// Handle when album and/or album name or photo index missing
return false


iOS Platform APIs
Mobile Security Testing Guide
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